Sports Mega Events and Urban Legacies The 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil

by Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre (eds.)

Sports Mega Events and Urban Legacies The 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil This book examines the urban legacy of the 2014 football World Cup in Brazil across the seven cities that hosted matches The authors all experts and natives of South America analyse the context and impacts of hosting the World Cup for each of the host cities The chapters use a range of background data and local knowledge and understanding to critically assess what benefits or disadvantages came along with bidding for and hosting World Cup final games and importantly considers who the benef

Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan

Author : Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre (eds.)

ISBN : 9783319440118

Year : 2017

Language: en

File Size : 6.45 MB

Category : Business Money

Mega Event Planning
Series Editor
Eva Kassens-Noor
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
USA

The Mega Event Planning Pivot series will provide a global and crossdisciplinary view into the planning for the world’s largest sporting, religious, cultural, and other transformative mega events. Examples include
the Olympic Games, Soccer World Cups, Rugby championships, the
Commonwealth Games, the Hajj, the World Youth Day, World
Expositions, and parades. This series will critically discuss, analyze, and
challenge the planning for these events in light of their legacies including
the built environment, political structures, socio-economic systems, societal values, personal attitudes, and cultures.

More information about this series at
http://www.springer.com/series/14808

Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre
Editor

Sports Mega-Events
and Urban Legacies
The 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil

Editor
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre
Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism
University of São Paulo
São Paulo, Brazil

Mega Event Planning
ISBN 978-3-319-44011-8
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44012-5

ISBN 978-3-319-44012-5 (eBook)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948578
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2017
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publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are
exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information
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Cover illustration: Détail de la Tour Eiffel © nemesis2207/Fotolia.co.uk
Printed on acid-free paper
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The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

PREFACE

In October 2007, Brazil was chosen to organise the 2014 FIFA World
Cup. Seemingly a natural vocation due to the country’s historic relationship with football, the competition to host this mega-event was related to
the political project of its governors during a period of rapid economic
growth and the emergence of the country on the global stage. After
organising the 2007 Pan American Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil jumped on the sport mega-event bandwagon, having been chosen
as host for both the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games,
again in the city of Rio de Janeiro.
The idea of organising such mega-events had been defended by urban
planners as a way to attract considerable public and private resources to be
invested in cities. In this respect, the city of Barcelona has been an outstanding example of the possible urban transformations as a result of the
1992 Olympic Games. The construction or renovation of ports, airports,
public transportation and sports facilities, housing, hotels and tourism
developments is regarded as the urban legacy of organising such megaevents.
Aware of these ideas, the Brazilian government decided to coordinate
an investment programme to transform 12 of the 26 capitals of Brazilian
states. Regardless of the World Cup result, the aim was to leave an
important legacy in terms of infrastructure, employment and incomegenerating activities, and to promote Brazil’s global image. Therefore,
the government took over the coordination of the planning, which was
made together with the private sector, chosen states and municipalities,
resulting in the Responsibility Matrix.
v

vi

PREFACE

Between October 2007 and July 2014, a series of infrastructure, mobility and stadia construction projects was carried out at a cost of US$10
billion, of which 84 per cent came from the public sector, despite promises
to the contrary. However, this mega-event organisation has resulted in
‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in the process. On the one hand, business groups
associated with local governments profited, either through exploiting
commercial sport facilities or by expanding new fronts for real estate
capital near facilities and infrastructure projects. On the other hand, the
low-income excluded populations were the main losers, either by being
removed from the areas affected by the projects, or as a result of the misuse
of public resources designated for the mega-event at the expense of their
actual demands.
The aim of this book is to understand the main results of the World Cup
urban interventions, which were its main urban legacy in seven of the host
cities. Thus, the physical-spatial and socio-economic impact of the major
urban interventions will be put under analysis. The idea is not to exhaust
all the areas of study in relation to the 2014 FIFA World Cup, but to
understand what these and also the political and social impacts were on the
cities of an emerging country like Brazil.

CONTENTS

1 The 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

1

2 Belo Horizonte
Heloisa Soares de Moura Costa
and João Bosco Moura Tonucci Filho

25

3 Fortaleza
Luís Renato Bezerra Pequeno and Valéria Pinheiro

41

4 Natal
Alexsandro Ferreira Cardoso da Silva

63

5 Porto Alegre
João Farias Rovati and Clarice Misoczky de Oliveira

77

6 Recife
Flávio A.M. de Souza

97

vii

viii

CONTENTS

7 Rio de Janeiro
Fabrício Leal de Oliveira, Fernanda Sánchez,
Glauco Bienenstein and Giselle Tanaka

117

8 São Paulo
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre, Jorge Bassani
and Camila D’Ottaviano

137

9 The Cup Final Score
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre

153

Index

161

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

Jorge Bassani Architect and Urban Planner (UBC—Brás Cubas
University), MA and PhD in Architecture and Urbanism (USP—
University of São Paulo), Professor at FAUUSP—University of São
Paulo, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, São Paulo, Brazil.
Glauco Bienenstein Architect and Urban Planner, MSc in Geography
and PhD in Urban and Regional Planning (UFRJ—Federal University of
Rio de Janeiro), Professor at UFF—Fluminense Federal University,
School of Architecture and Urbanism, Niterói, Brazil.
Heloisa Soares de Moura Costa Architect and Urban Planner (UFRJ—
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), MPhil in Urban Planning (AA—
Architectural Association), PhD in Demography (UFMG—Federal
University of Minas Gerais), Postdoc in Geography (UCB—University
of California Berkeley), Full Professor at UFMG—Federal University of
Minas Gerais, Geography Department, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Camila D’Ottaviano Architect and Urban Planner, MA and PhD in
Architecture and Urbanism (USP—University of São Paulo), Professor
at FAUUSP—University of São Paulo, Faculty of Architecture and
Urbanism, São Paulo, Brazil.
Eduardo Alberto Cusce Nobre Architect and Urban Planner and PhD in
Architecture and Urbanism (USP—University of São Paulo), MA in
Urban Design (OBU—Oxford Brookes University), Visiting Researcher
ix

x

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

at UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Professor at FAUUSP—
University of São Paulo, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, São Paulo,
Brazil.
Clarice Misoczky de Oliveira Architect and Urban Planner, MSc and
PhD candidate in Urban and Regional Planning in the Post Graduate
Program in Urban and Regional Planning, UFRGS—Federal University
of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Fabrício Leal de Oliveira Architect and Urban Planner, MSc and PhD in
Urban and Regional Planning (UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro),
Professor at IPPUR-UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of
Urban and Regional Planning and Research, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Luís Renato Bezerra Pequeno Architect and Urban Planner (USP—
University of São Paulo), MSc in Infrastructure Planning (University of
Stuttgart), PhD in Architecture and Urbanism (USP—University of São
Paulo), Visiting Researcher in Urban Policy (PUCSP—São Paulo Catholic
University), Associate Professor at UFC—Federal University of Ceará,
Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Fortaleza, Brazil.
Valéria Pinheiro Lawyer specialising in social projects (UNIFOR—
University of Fortaleza), MSc candidate in Urban and Regional Planning
at IPPUR-UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of
Urban and Regional Planning and Research, Researcher at UFC—
Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.
João Farias Rovati Architect and Urban Planner (UFRGS—Federal
University of Rio Grande do Sul), MSc in Urban and Regional Planning
(UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), PhD in Architecture and
Urbanism (University of Paris-8), Associate Professor at UFRGS—Federal
University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculty of Architecture, Porto Alegre,
Brazil.
Fernanda Sánchez Architect and Urban Planner, MSc in Urban and
Regional Planning (UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), PhD
in Human Geography (USP—University of São Paulo), Professor at
UFF—Fluminense Federal University, School of Architecture and
Urbanism, Niterói, Brazil.

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS

xi

Alexsandro Ferreira Cardoso da Silva Architect and Urban Planner, MA
and PhD in Architecture and Urbanism (UFRN—Federal University of
Rio Grande do Norte), Professor at UFRN—Federal University of Rio
Grande do Norte, Public Policies Department, Natal, Brazil.
Flávio A.M. de Souza Architect and Urban Planner (UFPE—Federal
University of Pernambuco), MA in Urban Design and PhD in Planning
(OBU—Oxford Brookes University), Postdoc in Public Policy (UT
Austin—University of Texas at Austin), Full Professor at UFPE—Federal
University of Pernambuco, Centre for the Arts and Communication,
Recife, Brazil.
Giselle Tanaka Architect and Urban Planner (USP—University of São
Paulo), MA in Architecture and Urbanism (USP—University of São
Paulo), PhD candidate in Urban and Regional Planning at IPPURUFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Urban and
Regional Planning and Research, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
João Bosco Moura Tonucci Filho Economist (UFMG—Federal
University of Minas Gerais), MA in Architecture and Urbanism (USP—
University of São Paulo), PhD candidate in Geography at UFMG—
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

LIST

Fig. 1.1
Fig. 2.1
Fig. 3.1
Fig. 3.2
Fig. 3.3
Fig. 4.1
Fig. 5.1
Chart 5.1
Fig. 5.2
Fig. 6.1
Chart 6.1
Chart 6.2
Fig. 6.2
Fig. 7.1
Fig. 8.1
Chart 8.1
Chart 8.2

OF

FIGURES

Map of Brazil (States and Great Regions)
Urban mobility interventions and expropriation/eviction
areas in Belo Horizonte
Economic activities and urban development in Fortaleza
Spatial segregation in Fortaleza: social housing and real
estate market
Urban interventions related to the 2014 World Cup
in Fortaleza
The Arena das Dunas
Map of the 2014 FIFA World Cup projects in Porto Alegre
Number of urban mobility projects included
in the Responsibility Matrix
The Beira Rio and Grêmio Arenas in Porto Alegre
Location of the Arena Pernambuco in the MRR
Annual percentage of GDP growth rate for Brazil and
Pernambuco from 1990 to 2014 (base: 1990 = 100)
Annual percentage GDP growth rate for Brazil
and Pernambuco from 2003 to 2014
The Arena Pernambuco
The Maracanã stadium and its surroundings
The Itaquera Arena
Variation on the new high-rise residential development
PSV between 2010 and 2014
Variation on the new high-rise residential unities
launching between 2010 and 2014

6
32
44
46
51
72
83
84
86
99
101
102
103
124
146
148
149

xiii

xiv

LIST OF FIGURES

Chart 9.1
Fig. 9.1

Growth in the Brazilian automobile production
(in thousands of units) from 2000 to 2014
São Paulo abandoned light rail line

156
157

LIST

Table 1.1
Table 1.2
Table 5.1
Table 5.2
Table 8.1

OF

TABLES

The Final Responsibility Matrix Investment by Type
of Work
The Final Responsibility Matrix Investments by City
Large Urban Interventions projects in Porto Alegre
Summary of the projects for the FIFA’s World Cup
2014 in Porto Alegre
The São Paulo final Responsibility Matrix investment
by type of work

12
14
80
92
141

xv

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