Glencoe Science Chemistry Student Edition

by McGraw-Hill Education

Glencoe Science Chemistry Student Edition Author McGraw Hill Education Isbn 9780078617676 File size 28 2MB Year 2004 Pages 173 Language English File format PDF Category Chemistry Chemistry as a part of the Glencoe Science 15 Book Series provides students with accurate and comprehensive coverage of chemical bonding reactions solutions and more The strong content coverage integrates a wide range of hands on experiences critic Download 28 2MB Glencoe Science Level Red Student Edition Organosilicon Chemistry I From M

Publisher :

Author : McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN : 9780078617676

Year : 2004

Language: English

File Size : 28.2MB

Category : Chemistry

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Page ii

Chemistry
Water droplets condense on
the surface of a flask that has
been cooled by a chemical
reaction. A chemical change
produces new substances
that have properties different
from those of the original
substances. The change in
temperature is an indication
that a chemical reaction has
taken place.

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under
the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any
form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission
of the publisher.
The National Geographic features were designed and developed by the National Geographic Society’s
Education Division. Copyright © National Geographic Society.The name “National Geographic Society”
and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of the Society, and their use, without prior written
permission, is strictly prohibited.
The “Science and Society” and the “Science and History” features that appear in this book were
designed and developed by TIME School Publishing, a division of TIME Magazine.TIME and the red
border are trademarks of Time Inc. All rights reserved.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027
ISBN: 0-07-861767-7
Printed in the United States of America.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 027/111 09 08 07 06 05 04

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Authors

Education Division
Washington, D.C.

Eric Werwa, PhD

Dinah Zike

Department of Physics and
Astronomy
Otterbein College
Westerville, OH

Educational Consultant
Dinah-Might Activities, Inc.
San Antonio, TX

Series Consultants
CONTENT

READING

ACTIVITY TESTERS

Linda McGaw

Rachel Swaters-Kissinger

Nerma Coats Henderson

Science Program Coordinator
Advanced Placement Strategies, Inc.
Dallas, TX

Science Teacher
John Boise Middle School
Warsaw, MO

Pickerington Lakeview Jr. High
School
Pickerington, OH

MATH

SAFETY

Mary Helen Mariscal-Cholka

Michael Hopper, DEng

Aileen Duc, PhD

William D. Slider Middle School
El Paso, TX

Manager of Aircraft Certification
L-3 Communications
Greenville, TX

Science 8 Teacher
Hendrick Middle School, Plano ISD
Plano, TX

Science Kit and Boreal
Laboratories
Tonawanda, NY

Sandra West, PhD
Department of Biology
Texas State University-San Marcos
San Marcos, TX

Series Reviewers
Sharla Adams

Tom Bright

Nora M. Prestinari Burchett

IPC Teacher
Allen High School
Allen, TX

Concord High School
Charlotte, NC

Saint Luke School
McLean, VA

Joanne Davis

Karen Watkins

Desiree Bishop

Murphy High School
Murphy, NC

Perry Meridian Middle School
Indianapolis, IN

Environmental Studies Center
Mobile County Public Schools
Mobile, AL

Annette Parrott
Lakeside High School
Atlanta, GA

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Page iv

Why do I need
my science book?
Have you ever been in class and
not understood all of what was
presented? Or, you understood
everything in class, but at home,
got stuck on how to answer a
question? Maybe you just
wondered when you were ever
going to use this stuff?
These next few pages
are designed to help you
understand everything your
science book can be used
for . . . besides a paperweight!

Before You Read


Chapter Opener Science is occurring all around you,
and the opening photo of each chapter will preview the
science you will be learning about. The Chapter
Preview will give you an idea of what you will be
learning about, and you can try the Launch Lab to
help get your brain headed in the right direction. The
Foldables exercise is a fun way to keep you organized.



Section Opener Chapters are divided into two to four
sections. The As You Read in the margin of the first
page of each section will let you know what is most
important in the section. It is divided into four parts.
What You’ll Learn will tell you the major topics you
will be covering. Why It’s Important will remind you
why you are studying this in the first place! The
Review Vocabulary word is a word you already know,
either from your science studies or your prior knowledge. The New Vocabulary words are words that you
need to learn to understand this section. These words
will be in boldfaced print and highlighted in the
section. Make a note to yourself to recognize these
words as you are reading the section.

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Science Vocabulary Make the
following Foldable to help you
understand the vocabulary
terms in this chapter.

As You Read


Headings Each section has a title
in large red letters, and is further
divided into blue titles and
small red titles at the beginnings of some paragraphs.
To help you study, make an
outline of the headings and
subheadings.

Margins In the margins of
your text, you will find many helpful
resources. The Science Online exercises and
Integrate activities help you explore the topics
you are studying. MiniLabs reinforce the science concepts you have learned.




Building Skills You also will find an
Applying Math or Applying Science activity
in each chapter. This gives you extra practice using your new knowledge, and helps
prepare you for standardized tests.



Student Resources At the end of the book
you will find Student Resources to help you
throughout your studies. These include
Science, Technology, and Math Skill Handbooks, an English/Spanish Glossary, and an
Index. Also, use your Foldables as a resource.
It will help you organize information, and
review before a test.



In Class Remember, you can always
ask your teacher to explain anything
you don’t understand.

STEP 1 Fold a vertical
sheet of notebook
paper from side to
side.

STEP 2 Cut along every third line of only the
top layer to form tabs.

STEP 3 Label each tab with a vocabulary
word from the chapter.

Build Vocabulary As you read the chapter, list
the vocabulary words on the tabs. As you learn
the definitions, write them under the tab for
each vocabulary word.

Look For...
At the beginning of
every section.

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In Lab
Working in the laboratory is one of the best ways to understand the concepts you are studying. Your book will be your guide through your laboratory
experiences, and help you begin to think like a scientist. In it, you not only will
find the steps necessary to follow the investigations, but you also will find
helpful tips to make the most of your time.


Each lab provides you with a Real-World Question to remind you that
science is something you use every day, not just in class. This may lead
to many more questions about how things happen in your world.



Remember, experiments do not always produce the result you expect.
Scientists have made many discoveries based on investigations with unexpected results. You can try the experiment again to make sure your results
were accurate, or perhaps form a new hypothesis to test.



Keeping a Science Journal is how scientists keep accurate records of observations and data. In your journal, you also can write any questions that
may arise during your investigation. This is a great method of reminding
yourself to find the answers later.

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Before a Test
Admit it! You don’t like to take tests! However, there are
ways to review that make them less painful. Your book will
help you be more successful taking tests if you use the
resources provided to you.


Review all of the New Vocabulary words and be sure you
understand their definitions.



Review the notes you’ve taken on your Foldables, in class,
and in lab. Write down any question that you still need
answered.



Review the Summaries and Self Check questions at the
end of each section.



Study the concepts presented in the chapter by reading
the Study Guide and answering the questions in
the Chapter Review.

Look For...








Reading Checks and caption
questions throughout the text.
the Summaries and Self Check
questions at the end of each section.
the Study Guide and Review
at the end of each chapter.
the Standardized Test Practice
after each chapter.

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Let’s Get Started
To help you find the information you need quickly, use the Scavenger
Hunt below to learn where things are located in Chapter 1.
What is the title of this chapter?
What will you learn in Section 1?
Sometimes you may ask, “Why am I learning this?” State a reason why the
concepts from Section 2 are important.
What is the main topic presented in Section 2?
How many reading checks are in Section 1?
What is the Web address where you can find extra information?
What is the main heading above the sixth paragraph in Section 2?
There is an integration with another subject mentioned in one of the margins
of the chapter. What subject is it?
List the new vocabulary words presented in Section 2.
List the safety symbols presented in the first Lab.
Where would you find a Self Check to be sure you understand the section?
Suppose you’re doing the Self Check and you have a question about concept
mapping. Where could you find help?
On what pages are the Chapter Study Guide and Chapter Review?
Look in the Table of Contents to find out on which page Section 2 of the
chapter begins.
You complete the Chapter Review to study for your chapter test.
Where could you find another quiz for more practice?

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Page ix

Teacher Advisory Board
he Teacher Advisory Board gave the editorial staff and design team feedback on the
content and design of the Student Edition. They provided valuable input in the development of the 2005 edition of Glencoe Science.

T

John Gonzales
Challenger Middle School
Tucson, AZ

Marie Renner
Diley Middle School
Pickerington, OH

Rubidel Peoples
Meacham Middle School
Fort Worth, TX

Rachel Shively
Aptakisic Jr. High School
Buffalo Grove, IL

Nelson Farrier
Hamlin Middle School
Springfield, OR

Kristi Ramsey
Navasota Jr. High School
Navasota, TX

Roger Pratt
Manistique High School
Manistique, MI

Jeff Remington
Palmyra Middle School
Palmyra, PA

Kirtina Hile
Northmor Jr. High/High School
Galion, OH

Erin Peters
Williamsburg Middle School
Arlington, VA

Student Advisory Board
he Student Advisory Board gave the editorial staff and design team feedback on the
design of the Student Edition. We thank these students for their hard work and
creative suggestions in making the 2005 edition of Glencoe Science student friendly.

T

Jack Andrews
Reynoldsburg Jr. High School
Reynoldsburg, OH

Addison Owen
Davis Middle School
Dublin, OH

Peter Arnold
Hastings Middle School
Upper Arlington, OH

Teriana Patrick
Eastmoor Middle School
Columbus, OH

Emily Barbe
Perry Middle School
Worthington, OH

Ashley Ruz
Karrer Middle School
Dublin, OH

Kirsty Bateman
Hilliard Heritage Middle School
Hilliard, OH
Andre Brown
Spanish Emersion Academy
Columbus, OH
Chris Dundon
Heritage Middle School
Westerville, OH
Ryan Manafee
Monroe Middle School
Columbus, OH

The Glencoe middle school science Student
Advisory Board taking a timeout at COSI,
a science museum in Columbus, Ohio.

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Aaron Haupt Photography

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Contents
Contents

Nature of Science:
Alfred Nobel, Dynamite, and Peace—2
Atomic Structure and Chemical
Bonds—6
Section 1
Section 2

Why do atoms combine? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
How Elements Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Lab Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Lab: Model and Invent
Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

Chemical Reactions—34
Section 1
Section 2

Chemical Formulas and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Rates of Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Lab Physical or Chemical
Change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Lab: Design Your Own
Exothermic or Endothermic? . . . .54

Substances, Mixtures,
and Solubility—62
Section 1
Section 2

Section 3

x



What is a solution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Lab Observing Gas Solubility . . . . .77
Acidic and Basic Solutions . . . . . . .78
Lab Testing pH Using Natural
Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

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Christopher Swann/Peter Arnold, Inc.

In each chapter, look for
these opportunities for
review and assessment:
• Reading Checks
• Caption Questions
• Section Review
• Chapter Study Guide
• Chapter Review
• Standardized Test
Practice
• Online practice at
bookl.msscience.com

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Contents
Contents

Carbon Chemistry—94
Section 1
Section 2

Section 3

Simple Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Other Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Lab Conversion of Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Biological Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Lab Looking for Vitamin C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116

Student Resources
Science Skill Handbook—126
Scientific Methods . . . . . . . . . . .126
Safety Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Safety in the Science
Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136

Reference Handbooks—159
Physical Science Reference
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Periodic Table of the
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Physical Science References . . . . .162

Extra Try at Home Labs—138
Technology Skill
Handbook—140
Computer Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Presentation Skills . . . . . . . . . . .143

English/Spanish
Glossary—163
Index—168
Credits—173

Math Skill Handbook—144
Math Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Science Applications . . . . . . . . .154

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Cross-Curricular Readings/Labs
available as a video lab

VISUALIZING

Content Details

1
2
3
4

Crystal Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Acid Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Organic Chemistry
Nomenclature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

4 From Plants to Medicine. . . . . . . 119

3 Salty Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

1 Model the Energy of Electrons . . . 7
2 Identify a Chemical Change . . . . . 35
3 Particle Size and Dissolving
Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4 Model Carbon’s Bonding . . . . . . . 95

2 Synthetic Diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . 56

1 “Baring the Atom’s Mother
Heart” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1 Drawing Electron Dot
Diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 Observing the Law of
Conservation of Mass . . . . . . . . 40
3 Observing a Nail in a
Carbonated Drink . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4 Summing Up Protein. . . . . . . . . . 109

1 Constructing a Model of
Methane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2 Identifying Inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . 50
3 Observing Chemical Processes . . . 74
4 Observing Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . 100

One-Page Labs
1
2
3
4

xii
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Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Physical or Chemical Change? . . . 53
Observing Gas Solubility. . . . . . . . 77
Conversion of Alcohols . . . . . . . . 107

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Labs/Activities
Two-Page Labs
3 Testing pH Using Natural
Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86–87
4 Looking for Vitamin C . . . . 116–117

Design Your Own Labs

Applying Science

Content Details

1 How does the periodic table
help you identify properties
of elements? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 How can you compare
concentrations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4 Which foods are the best for
quick energy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

2 Exothermic or
Endothermic? . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–55

Model and Invent Labs
1 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . 26–27

Applying Math
2 Conserving Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Career: 11, 75, 110
Earth Science: 98
Environment: 67, 71
Health: 49
History: 51
Life Science: 39, 81
Physics: 17, 28

10, 21, 41, 47, 65, 81, 84, 102, 113

Standardized Test Practice
32–33, 60–61, 92–93, 122–123

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Limits of Science

Alfred Nobel,
Dynamite,
and Peace
Figure 1 Alfred Nobel
(1833–1896) invented both
dynamite and the Nobel prize.

Figure 2 Dynamite can be
used to clear away sections of
mountains in order to build tunnels for roads and trains.

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A

lfred Nobel is best known for the invention of
dynamite and the establishment of the Nobel
prize—an award given to those whose efforts in the
fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature,
economics, or peace have benefited humanity. These two seemingly opposite acts—the invention of a deadly explosive and the
establishment of a prize that promotes, among other things,
peace—emphasize the power and the limitations of science.
Science enabled Nobel to create a superior explosive, but
science could not answer other important questions, such as
how dynamite should be used. Was it ethical for Nobel to
invent an explosive that increased the killing power of weapons?
Are scientists responsible for how their discoveries are used?
Perhaps Nobel’s own answer to these questions was to bestow
money after his death for the establishment of the Nobel prize.

A Powerful Invention
In the 1850s, Nobel began experimenting with nitroglycerin
(ni troh GLIHS or ohn)—a powerful liquid explosive. Since
it exploded unpredictably, it was considered too dangerous for
widespread use. Nobel
decided to find a way
to make nitroglycerin
safer to handle. Nobel
called his invention
dynamite.

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Nobel intended dynamite to be used as a construction tool. It was more powerful than gunpowder—the most common explosive used in
construction at the time. Indeed, dynamite helped
reduce the cost of blasting rocks, which is essential
for building tunnels and canals. However, military
leaders were also interested in Nobel’s discovery.
Only a few years after its invention, dynamite was
used as a weapon in the Franco-Prussian War
(1870–1871), a conflict between France and the
German state of Prussia.
Nobel had not intended dynamite to be used as
a weapon. Still, he became rich from selling dynamite to armies as well as to construction companies. Later
he invented other explosives specifically for use in missiles,
torpedoes, and cannons.
Some biographers claim that Nobel believed scientists are
not responsible for how their discoveries are used. Others
assert that Nobel founded a prize that promotes peace to counteract the harm done by his contribution to weapons. Clearly,
science can’t answer all the questions about scientists’s
accountability for their discoveries.

Figure 3 Dynamite was originally intended to be used in construction. This tunnel was created
with dynamite.

Figure 4 During the FrancoPrussian War (1870–1871), dynamite was used as a weapon.

THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

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Science

Figure 4 Before there were
faces on Mount Rushmore, there
was unshaped rock. About 90
percent of the mountain was
carved with dynamite.

Science is the process of gaining knowledge by asking
questions and seeking the answers to these questions. To
answer questions, scientists use scientific methods. They
include identifying a question, forming and testing a hypothesis, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions. Alfred Nobel
invented dynamite by beginning with the question “How can
nitroglycerin be made more stable and therefore safer to handle?” After forming a hypothesis that nitroglycerin would be
more stable if mixed with another substance, he
tested several materials and finally found a safer
mixture. For a question to be scientific, it must be
testable. Scientific conclusions can change as more
information is gained.

The Power of Science
Alfred Nobel’s invention has benefited humankind in countless ways. The Panama Canal, Mount
Rushmore, and many tunnels and mines were built
with the aid of dynamite. It can break up dangerous ice and logjams and it can quickly and safely
reduce large buildings to rubble. Police departments use dynamite to detonate suspicious packages. Fire departments use it to put out oil well
fires. The explosion of the dynamite requires a
huge amount of oxygen and suffocates the fire.

Figure 5 In demolitions,
explosions are carefully placed to
ensure that the building collapses
inward.

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Alfred Nobel, Dynamite, and Peace

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The Limits of Science
Using scientific methods is the best way to learn about how
the world works, but science has its limitations. Scientists are
sometimes unable to answer a question or solve a problem
because they lack the necessary tools. This is often a temporary
limitation because once the required tools are developed, science
often provides answers. For example, scientists were unaware of
the existence of Jupiter’s moons before the telescope was invented.

What Science Can’t Answer
Science can’t give answers to questions that are not testable
or that can’t be measured or observed. Three major areas in
which science can’t provide answers are questions about
morality, values, and spirituality.
The idea that it was immoral for Nobel to sell dynamite to
armies, for example, is not a scientific idea because it can’t be
scientifically tested. Similarly, science can’t answer opinion
questions about values like the modern-day question of how
far advances in the field of cloning should be taken. Should
scientists use the new techniques developed to clone a human
being? Any possible answer is a matter of opinion and therefore can’t be measured or tested. Finally, science can’t answer
questions about spiritual matters because they are unable to be
observed, measured, or tested.

Figure 6 When the world was
presented with Dolly, a sheep
produced as a result of cloning,
many ethical questions were
raised about future applications
of this new biotechnology.

Science and Responsibility
Although science can’t answer questions about ethics and
values, it can provide facts that may help people to make
informed decisions. Being familiar with facts on all sides of an
issue and careful consideration of what the possible positive
and negative effects might be to an individual, a society, or the
environment can help people decide upon a course of action.

Each new scientific discovery brings new questions. Some of
these questions concern ethical matters that can’t be
answered by science alone. Find out about a recipient of the
Nobel Prize for Chemistry. What did the person do to win this
honor? What ethical questions arise from his or her work?

THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

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Atomic Structure
and Chemical Bonds

sections
1 Why do atoms combine?
2 How Elements Bond
Lab Ionic Compounds
Lab Atomic Structure
Virtual Labs How can you tell
which elements form chemical
bonds?

The Noble Family
Blimps, city lights, and billboards, all have
something in common––they use gases that
are members of the same element family. In
this chapter, you’ll learn about the unique
properties of element families. You’ll also
learn how electrons can be lost, gained, and
shared by atoms to form chemical bonds.
Science Journal Write a sentence comparing
household glue to chemical bonds.

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Christian Michel

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Page 7

Start-Up Activities

Model the Energy of Electrons
It’s time to clean out your room—again.
Where do all these things come from? Some
are made of cloth and some of wood. The
books are made of paper and an endless
array of things are made of plastic. Fewer
than 100 different kinds of naturally occurring elements are found on Earth. They combine to make all these different substances.
What makes elements form chemical bonds
with other elements? The answer is in their
electrons.

Chemical Bonds Make the following Foldable to help you classify information by diagramming
ideas about chemical bonds.
STEP 1 Fold a vertical sheet
of paper in half from
top to bottom.
STEP 2 Fold in half from side
to side with the fold
at the top.
STEP 3 Unfold the paper
once. Cut only the
fold of the top flap
to make two tabs.

1. Pick up a paper clip with a magnet. Touch
that paper clip to another paper clip and
pick it up.
2. Continue picking up paper clips this way
until you have a strand of them and no
more will attach.
3. Then, gently pull off the paper clips one
by one.

4. Think Critically In your Science Journal,
discuss which paper clip was easiest to
remove and which was hardest. Was the
clip that was easiest to remove closer to or
farther from the magnet?

STEP 4 Turn the paper vertically and label the
tabs as shown.

Ionic
Bonds

Covalent
Bonds

Summarize As you read the chapter, identify the
main ideas of bonding under the appropriate tabs.
After you have read the chapter, explain the difference between polar covalent bonds and covalent
bonds on the inside portion of your Foldable.

Preview this chapter’s content
and activities at
bookl.msscience.com

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Christian Michel

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Page 8

Why do atoms combine?
Atomic Structure




Identify how electrons are
arranged in an atom.
Compare the relative amounts of
energy of electrons in an atom.
Compare how the arrangement
of electrons in an atom is related
to its place in the periodic table.

Chemical reactions take place all
around you.

Review Vocabulary
atom: the smallest part of an element that keeps all the properties
of that element

New Vocabulary

••
••

electron cloud
energy level
electron dot diagram
chemical bond

Figure 1 You can compare and
contrast electrons with planets.

When you look at your desk, you probably see it as something
solid. You might be surprised to learn that all matter, even solids
like wood and metal contain mostly empty space. How can this
be? The answer is that although there might be little or no space
between atoms, a lot of empty space lies within each atom.
At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons
and neutrons. This nucleus represents most of the atom’s mass.
The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons,
which are extremely small compared with the nucleus. Although
the exact location of any one electron cannot be determined, the
atom’s electrons travel in an area of space around the nucleus
called the electron cloud.
To visualize an atom, picture the nucleus as the size of a penny.
In this case, electrons would be smaller than grains of dust and the
electron cloud would extend outward as far as 20 football fields.

Electrons You might think that electrons resemble planets
circling the Sun, but they are very different, as you can see in
Figure 1. First, planets have no charges, but the nucleus of an
atom has a positive charge and electrons have negative charges.
Second, planets travel in predictable orbits—you can calculate exactly where one will be at any time. This is not true for
electrons. Although electrons do travel in predictable areas, it is
impossible to calculate the exact position of any one electron.
Instead scientists use a model that predicts where an
electron is most likely to be.

Electrons travel around
the nucleus. However,
their paths are not
well-defined.
Planets travel in well-defined paths.

8



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CHAPTER 1 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds

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