Introduction to Hydraulics and Hydrology With Applications for Stormwater Management

by Gribbin, John E

Introduction to Hydraulics and Hydrology With Applications for Stormwater Management With its comprehensive coverage of hydraulics and hydrology in a non calculus format the Fourth Edition of INTRODUCTION TO HYDRAULICS HYDROLOGY continues the same straightforward practical approach that has made previous editions so popular Designed to provide readers with an understanding of the concepts of hydraulics and surface water hydrology as they are used in everyday practice this edition contains multiple opportunities for practice and real world applications that are relevant to

Publisher : Cengage Learning distributor Delmar

Author : Gribbin, John E

ISBN : 9781133691839

Year : 2013

Language: en

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Introduction to
Hydraulics and Hydrology
with Applications for
Stormwater Management
FOU RT H

E D I T I O N

John E. Gribbin, P.E.
Essex County College

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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Introduction to Hydraulics and Hydrology
with Applications for Stormwater
Management, Fourth Edition
John E. Gribbin
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In memory of my father,
John B. Gribbin,
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at Manhattan College

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Contents
Preface   ix
Acknowledgments   xii
Chapter 1

Hydraulics and Hydrology in
Engineering   3

Objectives   3
1.1 History of Water Engineering   3
1.2 Modern Practice of Stormwater
Management   5
1.3 Legal and Environmental Issues   6
1.4 Public Agencies   7
1.5 Engineering Design   8
1.6 Engineering Computations   9
1.7 Metrication   14

Problems   15

Further Reading   15
Chapter 2

Fluid Mechanics   17

2.1
2.2
2.3

Objectives   17
Fundamental Concepts   17
Specific Weight and Density   19
Viscosity   21
Problems   23
Further Reading   23

Chapter 3

Fundamental Hydrostatics   25

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Objectives   25
Hydrostatic Pressure   25
Pressure on Plane Surfaces   28
Pressure on Curved Surfaces   34
Measuring Pressure   38
Buoyancy   40
Problems   46
Further Reading   49

Chapter 4

Fundamental Hydrodynamics   51

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Objectives   51
Motion of Water   51
Types of Flow   53
Energy Head   54
Conservation Laws   55
Measuring Flow   67
Problems   75
Further Reading   81

Chapter 5

Hydraulic Devices   83

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Objectives   83
Orifice Flow   83
Weir Flow   87
Flow under a Gate   94
Siphon Flow   96
Problems   98
Further Reading   101

Chapter 6

Open Channel Hydraulics   103

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Objectives   103
Fundamental Concepts   103
Types of Channels   106
Normal Depth   107
Critical Depth   108
Problems   112
Further Reading   116

Chapter 7

Uniform Flow in Channels   119

7.1
7.2
7.3

Objectives   119
Manning’s Equation   119
Channel Flow   121
Pipe Flow   124

v
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vi

Contents

7.4 Stream Flow   131

Problems   135

Further Reading   137

11.5 Nrcs Method versus Rational
Method   253

Problems   254

Further Reading   263

Chapter 8

Varied Flow in Channels   139

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Objectives   139
Fundamental Concepts   139
Backwater Profile   142
Entrance to a Channel   147
Hydraulic Jump   151
Problems   154
Further Reading   155

Chapter 9

Culvert Hydraulics   157

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

Objectives   157
Fundamental Concepts   157
Types of Flow   160
Inlet Control   162
Outlet Control   165
Entrance Efficiency   169
Problems   170
Further Reading   172

Chapter 10

Fundamental Hydrology   175

Objectives   175
10.1 Hydrologic Cycle   175
10.2 Drainage Area   177
10.3 Time of Concentration   182
10.4 Rainfall   187
10.5 Runoff Hydrographs   191
10.6 Subbasins   200
10.7 Routing   203

Problems   205

Further Reading   217
Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Storm Sewer Design   265

Objectives   265
12.1 Fundamental Concepts   266
12.2 Design Investigation   269
12.3 System Layout   271
12.4 Hydraulic Design   274
12.5 Storm Sewer Outfalls   289
12.6 Case Study   298

Problems   315

Further Reading   321
Chapter 13

Culvert Design   323

Objectives   323
13.1 Fundamental Concepts   323
13.2 Design Investigation   331
13.3 Design of New Culvert   332
13.4 Culvert Replacement   338
13.5 Case Study 1   347
13.6 Case Study 2   354

Problems   360

Further Reading   371
Chapter 14

Stormwater Detention   373

Objectives   373
14.1 Stormwater Impoundment    373
14.2 Outlet Structure   379
14.3 Emergency Spillway   387
14.4 Reservoir Routing   390

Problems   396

Further Reading   398

Runoff Calculations   219

Objectives   219
11.1 Rational Method   219
11.2 Modified Rational Method   231
11.3 Nrcs Method   233
11.4 Nrcs Method Computations   237

Chapter 15

Detention Design   401

Objectives   401
15.1 Fundamental Concepts   402
15.2 On-Site Detention Design   409

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15.3 Case Study 1   413
15.4 Case Study 2    424

Problems   432

Further Reading   437
APPENDIX A

Design Charts for Open Channel Flow   441
APPENDIX B

Design Charts for Culverts   479
APPENDIX C

Design Charts for Rational Method   491

Contents

APPENDIX D

Design Charts for NRCS Method   499
Appendix E

Symbols   523
Appendix F

Unit Conversions   527
Glossary   529
Selected Answers to Problems   535
Index  539

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vii

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Preface
This text was originally written to fill a long-standing need to treat the topics of
stormwater runoff and hydraulics together in one book. It is intended to be used by
students of civil engineering, civil engineering technology, and surveying, as well
as practitioners in industry and government. The topics presented are relevant to
public works, land development, and municipal engineering and planning—in fact,
to any designer (both engineer and technician) who must deal with the conveyance
of stormwater in any aspect of his/her work.
The book contains features designed to make the learning process more accessible and streamlined, such as:
• Many easy-to-follow examples
• Numerous clear diagrams, charts, and topographic maps to illustrate concepts developed in the text
• Case studies based on real-world projects
• A list of objectives starting each chapter to help focus the readers’ attention
• Design charts in the appendices to relate examples and problems to real
situations
• Inclusion of “Further Focus” features to provide deeper insight into
­specific topics
• A comprehensive glossary of important terms
This fourth edition marks a significant improvement to the text by rearrangement
of information and addition of new material. Several topics have been expanded,
including buoyancy, stream routing, unit hydrograph, and runoff computation by
the Rational Method. Expanded treatment of the unit hydrograph includes the
NRCS dimensionless unit hydrograph.
A new feature, called “Further Focus,” helps direct the reader’s attention to
various topics and provides additional background and sharpened interest.
One new case study of culvert design has been added and one of the case
studies of detention design has been replaced with a more relevant example. New
figures have been added and the number of problems at the end of chapters has
been increased.
The subjects of hydraulics and hydrology include many more topics than those
presented in this text. Hydraulics texts are available that treat engineering hydraulics in a comprehensive manner, and there are hydrology texts that deal only with
the engineering aspects of hydrology, but this book pares down the many topics
of hydraulics and hydrology to the most basic and common areas dealing with
stormwater management encountered by the designer on a day-to-day basis.
ix
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x

Preface

Principal topics include the following:
• Background concepts such as historical overview and basic notions of
computation and design
• Fluid mechanics
• Fundamental hydrostatics and hydrodynamics
• Flow through hydraulic devices commonly used in stormwater
management
• Open channel hydraulics
• Fundamental concepts of rainfall and runoff
• Runoff computation (Rational and NRCS Methods)
• Design of culverts
• Design of storm sewers
• Design of detention basins
One of the outstanding features of the book is the treatment of runoff
­c omputations. Thorough analysis and practice of watershed delineation are
­included to hone this skill, which is so essential to runoff analysis but often
­lacking in ­designers’ training.
Another outstanding feature of the text is the comprehensive appendices,
which include excerpts from several relevant design manuals in use today. ­Students
and others using the text will continually refer to the design charts ­located in
­Appendixes A through D when studying examples and working problems. Mastering the use of the charts is indispensable to learning the techniques of problem
solving in the real world. The student will learn not only the use of the charts but
also the theory and rationale used to create them.
For example, when analyzing a culvert problem, the student learns to recognize the correct chart in Appendix B and then uses it to derive key numerical
­values needed for the problem’s solution. References to specific appendix sections
are included throughout the text to guide the reader in their proper use.
One of the overarching premises used in framing the text is the belief that
­students need to learn engineering principles by solving problems by hand ­without
the aid of computer software. When they are practitioners on the job, they can
utilize the software, knowing the processes that are being used to compute the
­answers. And having worked the problems by hand, they will be able to distinguish meaningful answers from erroneous answers.
In addition to developing the readers’ hydraulic theory and runoff computation
techniques, one of the goals of the text is to introduce some of the rudimentary
stormwater management design processes that are used in civil engineering practice. To accomplish this, realistic design problems and case studies are included
that rely on actual design charts. However, the text should not be construed as
a complete design manual to be used on the job, nor is it intended to be. Good
­engineering practice requires the use of a variety of comprehensive sources found
in professional publications and design manuals prepared by government ­agencies.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Preface

xi

Design manuals are now published primarily online and change constantly. A good
design professional should review the online manuals periodically to ­ensure use of
current data and design approaches.
In developing the various topics throughout the text, the author has assumed
certain prior knowledge on the part of the reader. This includes the fundamental
concepts of land surveying, interpretation of topographic maps, profiles, and cross
sections, and the use of the engineer’s scale. Also, other engineering concepts such
as the formation of free-body diagrams and the resolution of forces and ­moments
are prerequisites to a full understanding of the text.

SUPPLEMENTS
An Instructor Resource on CD is available for this text. This is an educational
­resource that creates a truly electronic classroom. It is a CD-ROM containing tools
and instructional material that enrich your classroom and shorten instructor’s preparation time. The elements of the instructor resource link directly to the text and tie
together to provide a unified instructional system. With the instructor resource you
can spend your time teaching, not preparing to teach (ISBN 978-1-1336-9269-0).
Features contained in the instructor resource include:
• Solutions Manual. Solutions to end of chapter problems.
• PowerPoint® Presentations. Slides for each chapter of the text ­provide
the basis for a lecture outline that helps you present concepts and
­materials as well. Key points and concepts can be graphically highlighted
for ­student retention.
• Quizzes. Additional test questions are provided for each chapter.
• Image Gallery. This database of key images taken from the text can be
used in lecture presentations, as transparencies, for tests and quizzes, and
with Powerpoint presentations.

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank and acknowledge the professionals who reviewed the text
and revision plan to help us publish this new edition:
Dr. Leslie Brunell
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, NJ
Dr. Roy Gu
Iowa State University
Ames, IA
Dr. Todd Horton
Parkland College
Champaign, IL
Dr. Shafiqul Islam
Tufts University
Medford, MA
Dr. Charles Patrick
Morehead State University
Morehead, KY
Dr. Richard Vogel
Tufts University
Medford, MA
A special thank you goes to Dr. Pete Scarlatos of Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Raton, Florida, for performing a technical edit on the new and rewritten chapters.
The author wishes to recognize the support of his family and the future ­support
of his granddaughters, Meredith and Charlotte.

xii
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Introduction to
Hydraulics and Hydrology
with Applications for
Stormwater Management

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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