Analog Electronics Applications Fundamentals of Design and Analysis

by Hernando Lautaro Fernandez-Canque

Analog Electronics Applications Fundamentals of Design and Analysis This comprehensive text discusses the fundamentals of analog electronics applications design and analysis Unlike the physics approach in other analog electronics books this text focuses on an engineering approach from the main components of an analog circuit to general analog networks Concentrating on development of standard formulae for conventional analog systems the book is filled with practical examples and detailed explanations of procedures to analyze analog circuits The book cover

Publisher : CRC Press

Author : Hernando Lautaro Fernandez-Canque

ISBN : 9781498714952

Year : 2016

Language: en

File Size : 11.33 MB

Category : Engineering Transportation

Analog Electronics Applications

Fernandez-Canque

E l e c t r ical Engineering

F U N D A M E N TA L S O F D E S I G N A N D A N A LY S I S

tals of analog electronics applications, design, and
analysis. Unlike the physics approach in other
analog electronics books, this text focuses on an
engineering approach, from the main components
of an analog circuit to general analog networks.
Concentrating on development of standard formulae for conventional analog systems, the book is
filled with practical examples and detailed explanations of procedures to analyze analog circuits. The
book covers amplifiers, filters, and op-amps as well
as general applications of analog design.

K25316
ISBN-13: 978-1-4987-1495-2

90000

9 781498 714952

Analog Electronics Applications

This comprehensive text discusses the fundamen-

Analog Electronics
Applications
F U N D A M E N TA L S O F D E S I G N
A N D A N A LY S I S

Hernando Lautaro Fernandez-Canque

Analog Electronics
Applications
F U N D A M E N TA L S O F D E S I G N
A N D A N A LY S I S

Analog Electronics
Applications
F U N D A M E N TA L S O F D E S I G N
A N D A N A LY S I S

Hernando Lautaro Fernandez-Canque
G l a s g l o w C a l e d o n i a n U n i v e r s i t y, S c o t l a n d , U n i t e d K i n g d o m

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

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Version Date: 20160620
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To my wife Vicky
and our children Lalo, Bruni, Lia, and Mandela

Contents
Preface.....................................................................................................................xix
Acknowledgments....................................................................................................xxi
Author................................................................................................................... xxiii
Chapter 1 Analog Electronics Applications and Design.......................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

1.5

Introduction to Analog Electronics............................................1
Analog Signals............................................................................1
Analog Systems.......................................................................... 2
Application and Design of Analog Systems............................... 3
1.4.1 Customer Requirements................................................ 3
1.4.2 Top-Level Specifications............................................... 4
1.4.3 System Design Approach..............................................4
1.4.3.1 Top-Level Design...........................................5
1.4.3.2 Detailed Design.............................................5
1.4.4 Technology Choice........................................................5
1.4.4.1 System Testing...............................................6
1.4.4.2 Social and Environmental Implications........6
1.4.4.3 Documentation...............................................6
1.4.5 Distortion and Noise......................................................6
1.4.5.1 Noise..............................................................7
1.4.5.2 Distortion.......................................................7
1.4.6 Electronic Design Aids.................................................8
Key Points...................................................................................9

Chapter 2 Electric Circuits................................................................................... 11
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 11
2.2 Units......................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Unit of Charge............................................................. 12
2.2.2 Unit of Force................................................................ 12
2.2.3 Unit of Energy............................................................. 12
2.2.4 Unit of Power............................................................... 13
2.2.5 Unit of Electric Voltage............................................... 13
2.2.6 Unit of Resistance and Conductance........................... 13
2.3 Concept of Electric Charge and Current.................................. 15
2.4 Movement of Electrons and Electric Current in a Circuit........ 16
2.4.1 Circuit.......................................................................... 16
2.4.2 Electromotive Force.................................................... 17
2.4.3 Source.......................................................................... 17
2.4.4 Load............................................................................. 17

vii

viii

Contents

2.5

2.6

2.7
2.8

Passive Components: Resistance, Inductance, and
Capacitance.............................................................................. 17
2.5.1 Resistance.................................................................... 17
2.5.1.1 Resistors Connected in Series and
Parallel...................................................... 19
2.5.1.2 Resistors Connected in Series..................... 19
2.5.1.3 Resistor Connected in Parallel..................... 19
2.5.1.4 Special Case.................................................20
2.5.2 Capacitance................................................................. 21
2.5.2.1 Capacitors in Parallel...................................24
2.5.2.2 Capacitors in Series.....................................24
2.5.3 Inductors......................................................................26
2.5.3.1 Inductors in Series....................................... 27
2.5.3.2 Inductors in Parallel.....................................28
2.5.3.3 Energy Storage W in an Inductor................ 29
2.5.4 Application: Inductive Proximity Sensors.................. 29
Active Components of a Circuit: Sources................................ 29
2.6.1 Ideal Voltage Source................................................... 30
2.6.2 Practical Voltage Source............................................. 30
2.6.3 Voltage Sources Connected in Series.......................... 31
2.6.4 Voltage Sources Connected in Parallel....................... 31
2.6.4.1 Ideal Current Source.................................... 31
2.6.4.2 Practical Current Source............................. 31
Electric Circuits/Networks....................................................... 32
2.7.1 Selection of Components.............................................34
Key Points.................................................................................34

Chapter 3 Circuit Analysis................................................................................... 35
3.1
3.2

3.3

Concept of Steady State and Transient Solutions..................... 35
DC Circuits............................................................................... 36
3.2.1 Kirchhoff’s Current Law Applied to Electric
Circuits: KCL.............................................................. 36
3.2.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law Applied to Electric
Circuits: KVL.............................................................. 41
3.2.2.1 The Voltage and Current Divider................ 58
AC Circuits...............................................................................60
3.3.1 Origin of Phasor Domain............................................ 62
3.3.2 Application of Kirchhoff’s Law to ac Circuits............64
3.3.2.1 Impedance Z................................................64
3.3.2.2 Impedance of an Inductor............................ 65
3.3.2.3 Impedance of a Capacitance........................66
3.3.2.4 Impedance of a Resistance.......................... 67
3.3.2.5 Reactance X................................................. 68
3.3.2.6 Polar–Cartesian Forms................................ 69

ix

Contents

3.4

3.3.2.7 Cartesian to Polar Form............................... 69
3.3.2.8 Polar to Cartesian........................................ 69
3.3.2.9 Phasor Diagrams.......................................... 70
Key Points................................................................................. 76

Chapter 4 Diodes.................................................................................................. 77
4.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 77
4.2 Semiconductor Material........................................................... 77
4.2.1 Conductivity and Energy Bands in Semiconductors...... 77
4.2.2 Doping......................................................................... 79
4.3 p–n Junction.............................................................................80
4.4 Diode Current–Voltage Characteristics I–V............................. 81
4.4.1 Forward Bias............................................................... 81
4.4.2 Reverse Bias................................................................ 82
4.5 Different Types of Diodes........................................................ 83
4.5.1 Semiconductor Diodes................................................ 83
4.5.2 Zener Diodes...............................................................84
4.5.3 Avalanche Diodes........................................................84
4.5.4 Light-Emitting Diodes.................................................84
4.5.5 Tunnel Diodes.............................................................84
4.5.6 Gunn Diodes................................................................84
4.5.7 Peltier Diodes..............................................................84
4.5.8 Photodiodes................................................................. 85
4.5.9 Solar Cell..................................................................... 85
4.5.10 Schottky Diodes.......................................................... 85
4.6 Diode Applications................................................................... 85
4.6.1 Rectification................................................................ 85
4.6.2 Half-Wave Rectifiers................................................... 86
4.6.3 Full-Wave Rectifiers.................................................... 87
4.6.4 Single-Phase Bridge Rectifier Circuit......................... 87
4.6.5 Diode as Voltage Limiter............................................92
4.6.6 Voltage Doubler........................................................... 93
4.7 Testing Diodes..........................................................................94
4.8 Key points.................................................................................94
Reference.............................................................................................94
Chapter 5 Bipolar Junction Transistor................................................................. 95
5.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 95
5.2 Bipolar Junction Transistor....................................................... 95
5.3 BJT Characteristics.................................................................. 98
5.3.1 Transistor Configurations............................................ 98
5.3.2 Input Characteristics................................................... 98
5.3.3 Output Characteristics................................................. 98

x

Contents

5.3.4 Data for a Typical NPN Transistor............................ 100
5.3.5 Rating and Selection of Operating Point................... 101
5.4 Gain Parameters of BJT: Relationship of α and β
Parameters.............................................................................. 102
5.4.1 Common Base Connection........................................ 102
5.4.2 Common Emitter Configuration............................... 103
5.5 Testing Transistors.................................................................. 106
5.6 Efficient BJT as Amplification Device................................... 106
5.6.1 Emitter Injection Efficiency η................................... 108
5.6.2 Base Transport Factor χ............................................ 109
5.6.3 Punch-Through.......................................................... 111
5.7 Key Points............................................................................... 111
Reference........................................................................................... 111
Chapter 6 Field Effect Transistors..................................................................... 113
6.1 Introduction............................................................................ 113
6.2 Fabrication of FET................................................................. 113
6.3 Different Types of FET.......................................................... 114
6.3.1 Insulated-Gate FETs................................................. 114
6.3.2 Junction Gate FETs................................................... 115
6.3.3 FET Circuit Symbols................................................. 115
6.4 MOS FET............................................................................... 115
6.4.1 The MOS IGFET....................................................... 115
6.4.2 MOS Operation......................................................... 116
6.4.3 Accumulation............................................................ 117
6.4.4 Depletion................................................................... 118
6.4.5 Strong Inversion........................................................ 119
6.4.6 Threshold Voltage, VT............................................... 120
6.5 JFET Operation...................................................................... 120
6.6 Static Characteristics of FET................................................. 123
6.6.1 Input Characteristics................................................. 123
6.6.2 Output Characteristics............................................... 123
6.6.3 Transfer Characteristics............................................ 123
6.7 Current–Voltage Characteristics............................................. 123
6.7.1 Saturation.................................................................. 124
6.8 Key Points............................................................................... 126
Chapter 7 Bipolar Junction Transistor Biasing.................................................. 129
7.1 Introduction............................................................................ 129
7.2 Load Line............................................................................... 129
7.2.1 Cut Off...................................................................... 132
7.2.2 Saturation.................................................................. 132
7.3 Biasing a BJT.......................................................................... 133
7.3.1 Fixed Bias.................................................................. 133
7.3.2 Auto Bias................................................................... 137

xi

Contents

7.4

7.3.3 Collector-Feedback Bias............................................ 141
7.3.4 Two Sources.............................................................. 143
Key Points............................................................................... 144

Chapter 8 Modeling Transistors......................................................................... 145
8.1 Introduction............................................................................ 145
8.2 Hybrid h Parameters............................................................... 145
8.2.1 h Parameters Common Emitter Configuration......... 146
8.3 Admittance Y Parameters...................................................... 148
8.4 General Three-Parameter Model............................................ 149
8.5 T-Equivalent Two-Parameter Model...................................... 149
8.5.1 AC-Simple T-Parameters Transistor Model.............. 149
8.5.2 Emitter Resistance, re (Small Signal)........................ 150
8.6 Mutual Conductance Model................................................... 151
8.7 Key Points............................................................................... 152
Chapter 9 Small-Signal Analysis of an Amplifier under Different Models...... 153
9.1 Introduction............................................................................ 153
9.2 Analysis of Transistor Amplifiers Using h Parameters.......... 153
9.2.1 Current Gain, Gi........................................................ 154
9.2.2 Input Impedance, Zi.................................................. 155
9.2.3 Voltage Gain, Gv........................................................ 156
9.2.4 Output Impedance, Zo............................................... 156
9.2.5 Power Gain, Gp.......................................................... 157
9.3 Small-Signal Practical CE Amplifier under h-Parameter
Model...................................................................................... 158
9.3.1 Fixed Bias Amplifier................................................. 158
9.3.2 Auto Bias Amplifier.................................................. 159
9.3.2.1 Voltage Gain.............................................. 161
9.3.2.2 Current Gain.............................................. 161
9.3.2.3 Power Gain................................................ 162
9.4 Analysis of Transistor Amplifiers Using Y Parameters......... 165
9.4.1 Voltage Gain, Gv........................................................ 166
9.4.2 Current Gain, Gi........................................................ 166
9.4.3 Power Gain, Gp.......................................................... 166
9.5 Analysis of Transistor Amplifiers Using the General
Three-Parameter Model......................................................... 168
9.5.1 Voltage Gain, Gv........................................................ 168
9.5.2 Current Gain, Gi........................................................ 169
9.5.3 Power Gain, Gp.......................................................... 170
9.6 Analysis of Transistor Amplifiers Using the T-Model
Two-Parameters...................................................................... 172
9.6.1 Voltage Gain, Gv........................................................ 172
9.6.1.1 CE Amplifier Using T Parameters............. 172
9.6.2 Current Gain, Gi........................................................ 173

xii

Contents

9.6.3
9.6.4

9.7

Input Impedance, Zi.................................................. 173
Output Impedance, Zo............................................... 174
9.6.4.1 Effect of a Load Resistance....................... 175
9.6.4.2 Effect of the Source Resistance................. 175
9.6.5 Power Gain, Gp.......................................................... 177
Key Points............................................................................... 178

Chapter 10 Amplifiers Frequency Response........................................................ 179
10.1 Introduction............................................................................ 179
10.2 Half-Power Gain, Concept of 3 dB........................................ 179
10.3 CE Amplifier at Low Frequency............................................ 182
10.3.1 Voltage Gain at Low Frequency................................ 182
10.3.2 Low-Frequency Cutoff.............................................. 183
10.3.3 Phase Change at Low Frequency.............................. 184
10.3.3.1 Effect of the Other Capacitance on the
Low-Frequency Response.......................... 184
10.4 CE Amplifier at High Frequency............................................ 185
10.4.1 Voltage Gain at High Frequency............................... 185
10.4.2 High-Frequency Cutoff............................................. 187
10.4.3 Phase Change at High Frequency............................. 187
10.5 Total Frequency Response...................................................... 187
10.6 Key Points............................................................................... 189
Chapter 11 Common Collector Amplifier/Emitter Follower............................... 191
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5

Voltage Gain, GvCC................................................................. 191
Current Gain, GiCC................................................................. 194
Input Impedance, ZiCC............................................................ 194
Power Gain, GpCC................................................................... 195
Key Points............................................................................... 196

Chapter 12 Common Base Amplifier................................................................... 197
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5

Common Base Amplifiers under h Parameters...................... 197
Voltage Gain, GvCB................................................................. 198
Current Gain, GiCB................................................................. 199
Power Gain, GpCB................................................................... 199
Key Points...............................................................................200

Chapter 13 Common Emitter Amplifier in Cascade............................................ 201
13.1 Introduction............................................................................ 201
13.2 Overall Gain of Amplifiers in Cascade.................................. 201
13.2.1 Voltage Gain of the Last Stage n...............................202
13.2.2 Voltage Gain for the (n − 1) Stages...........................202
13.2.3 “Voltage” Gain of the Source.................................... 203

Contents

xiii

13.3 Frequency Response...............................................................205
13.3.1 Low-Frequency Cutoff..............................................205
13.3.1.1 Frequency Cutoff of Last Stage.................205
13.3.1.2 Frequency Cutoff for 1 to (n − 1) Stages...... 206
13.3.1.3 Frequency Cutoff Input Circuit
First Stage..................................................206
13.3.2 High-Frequency Cutoff.............................................208
13.3.2.1 Frequency Cutoff of Last Stage.................208
13.3.2.2 High-Frequency Cutoff for 1 to (n − 1)
Stages.........................................................209
13.3.2.3 Frequency Cutoff Input Circuit
First Stage..................................................209
13.4 Key Points............................................................................... 212
Chapter 14 Field Effect Transistor Biasing.......................................................... 213
14.1 Introduction............................................................................ 213
14.2 MOSFET Biasing................................................................... 213
14.2.1 Depletion MOSFET.................................................. 213
14.2.2 Enhancement MOSFET............................................ 214
14.2.2.1 Drain-Feedback Bias................................. 216
14.3 JFET Biasing.......................................................................... 217
14.3.1 Self-Bias.................................................................... 217
14.3.2 Voltage Divider Bias................................................. 219
14.4 Key Points............................................................................... 220
Chapter 15 Field Effect Transistor as Amplifiers................................................ 223
15.1 Introduction............................................................................ 223
15.2 Common Source Amplifier.................................................... 223
15.2.1 AC Voltage Gain at Medium Frequencies................. 223
15.2.2 AC Voltage Gain at High Frequencies...................... 227
15.2.3 Input Impedance at High Frequency......................... 228
15.3 Common Drain (Source Follower)......................................... 229
15.3.1 AC Voltage Gain at Medium Frequency................... 229
15.3.2 AC Voltage Gain at High Frequency......................... 232
15.3.3 Input Impedance at High Frequency......................... 233
15.3.4 Output Impedance at High Frequency...................... 234
15.4 Key Points............................................................................... 235
Chapter 16 Transfer Function and Bode Diagrams............................................. 237
16.1 Introduction............................................................................ 237
16.2 Transfer Functions.................................................................. 237
16.2.1 Examples of Transfer Functions Passive
Components............................................................... 237

xiv

Contents

16.3

16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7

16.2.2 First-Order Low-Pass Transfer Function................... 238
16.2.3 First-Order High-Pass Transfer Function.................. 239
Bode Plots............................................................................... 243
16.3.1 Magnitude Bode Plot................................................. 243
16.3.2 Transfer Function = TF = K (Constant).....................244
16.3.3 Transfer Function = TF = j2πf................................... 245
16.3.4 Transfer Function = TF = (1 + jf/fp).......................... 245
Idealized Bode Plots............................................................... 245
16.4.1 Magnitude Asymptotic.............................................. 245
16.4.2 Bode Plot Asymptotic Phase.....................................246
Construction of Bode Plots..................................................... 247
Bode Plot Example................................................................. 247
Key Points............................................................................... 250

Chapter 17 Feedback in Amplifiers..................................................................... 251
17.1 Introduction............................................................................ 251
17.2 Negative Feedback.................................................................. 251
17.2.1 Series Voltage NFB................................................... 253
17.2.1.1 Series Voltage NFB Voltage Gain............. 254
17.2.1.2 Series Voltage NFB Effects on Input
Impedance................................................. 254
17.2.1.3 Series Voltage NFB Effects on Output
Impedance................................................. 255
17.2.1.4 Series Voltage NFB Effects on
Frequency Response.................................. 255
17.2.1.5 Series Voltage NFB Effects on Internal
Distortion................................................... 257
17.2.1.6 Series Voltage NFB Current Gain............. 257
17.2.2 Series Current NFB................................................... 258
17.2.2.1 Series Current NFB Voltage Gain............. 259
17.2.2.2 Series Current NFB Current Gain.............260
17.2.2.3 Series Current NFB Effects on Input
Impedance.................................................260
17.2.2.4 Series Current NFB Effects on Output
Impedance.................................................260
17.2.3 Parallel Voltage NFB................................................260
17.2.3.1 Parallel Voltage NFB Voltage Gain........... 261
17.2.3.2 Parallel Voltage NFB Current Gain.......... 261
17.2.3.3 Parallel Voltage NFB Effects on Input
Impedance................................................. 262
17.2.3.4 Parallel Voltage NFB Effects on
Output Impedance..................................... 262
17.2.4 Parallel Current NFB................................................ 263
17.2.4.1 Parallel Current NFB Current Gain.......... 263

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