Stories of Khmelnytsky

by Amelia Glaser

Stories of Khmelnytsky This is a study of literary representations of the controversial 17th century Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Ukrainian Polish Russian Yiddish and Hebrew

Publisher : Stanford University Press

Author : Amelia Glaser

ISBN : 9780804793827

Year : 2015

Language: en

File Size : 17.93 MB

Category : Literature Fiction

Stories of Khmelnytsky

Stanford Studies on Central and Eastern Europe
Edited by Norman Naimark and Larry Wolff

Stories of Khmelnytsky
Competing Literary Legacies of the 1648
Ukrainian Cossack Uprising

Edited by Amelia M. Glaser

Stanford University Press
Stanford, California

Stanford University Press
Stanford, California
©2015 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or in
any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission
of Stanford University Press.
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free, archival-quality paper
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Stories of Khmelnytsky : competing literary legacies of the 1648 Ukrainian
­ ossack uprising / edited by Amelia M. Glaser.
C
pages cm--(Stanford studies on Central and Eastern Europe)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-8047-9382-7 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Khmelʹnytsʹkyi, Bohdan, approximately 1594-1657--In literature. 2. CossackPolish War, 1648-1657--Literature and the war. 3. Zaporozhians in literature.
4. Cossacks in literature. 5. Slavic literature--History and criticism. 6. Jewish
literature--History and criticism. I. Glaser, Amelia, editor. II. Series: Stanford
studies on Central and Eastern Europe.
pn57.k46s76 2015
809'.93358438024--dc23
2015011808
isbn 978-0-8047-9496-1 (electronic)
Typeset by Bruce Lundquist in 11/13.5 Adobe Garamond

Contents

List of Illustrations

ix

Acknowledgments xi
Chronology of Major Events Associated with the Khmelnytsky
Uprising and the Depiction of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Amelia M. Glaser and Frank E. Sysyn
A Brief Note on Orthography and Transliteration
Introduction. Bohdan Khmelnytsky as Protagonist:
Between Hero and Villain
Amelia M. Glaser

xiii
xx

1

Part I: The Literary Aftermath of 1648

1 A Portrait in Ambivalence: The Case of Natan Hanover
and His Chronicle, Yeven metsulah23
Adam Teller

2 “A Man Worthy of the Name Hetman”: The Fashioning
of Khmelnytsky as a Hero in the Hrabianka Chronicle
Frank E. Sysyn

36

3 A Reevaluation of the “Khmelnytsky Factor”: The Case
of the Seventeenth-Century Sabbatean Movement
Ada Rapoport-Albert

47

vi Contents

Part II: Khmelnytsky and Romanticism

4 Apotheosis, Rejection, and Transference: Bohdan Khmelnytsky
in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Romantic Literature
63
George G. Grabowicz

5 Heroes and Villains in the Historical Imagination:
The Elusive Khmelnytsky
Taras Koznarsky

6 The Image of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Polish Romanticism
and Its Post-Romantic Reflex
Roman Koropeckyj

89

110

Part III: Khmelnytsky and the Reinvention of
National Traditions

7 The Heirs of Tulʹchyn: A Modernist Reappraisal of Historical
Narrative127
Amelia M. Glaser

8 Hanukkah Cossack Style: Zaporozhian Warriors and Zionist
Popular Culture (1904–1918)
Israel Bartal

139

9 The Cult of Strength: Khmelnytsky in the Literature of
Ukrainian Nationalists During the 1930s and 1940s
Myroslav Shkandrij

153

Part IV: Khmelnytsky in Twentieth-Century Mythologies

10 Jews and Soviet Remythologization of the Ukrainian Hetman:
The Case of the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Gennady Estraikh

169

11 On the Other Side of Despair: Cossacks and Jews in
Yurii Kosach’s The Day of Rage182
Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern
12 Khmelnytsky in Motion: The Case of Soviet, Polish, and
Ukrainian Film
Izabela Kalinowska and Marta Kondratyuk

197

Contents vii

Afterword
Judith Deutsch Kornblatt

219

Notes227
Bibliography of Source Texts on the Khmelnytsky Uprisings

271

Contributors 283
Index 285

Illustrations

Figures
I.1 Mikhail Mikeshin, Model for memorial to Bohdan Khmelnytsky

2

I.2 Willem Hondius, Portrait of Bohdan Khmelnytsky (engraving;
1651) 14
5.1 Front matter and portrait of Khmelnytsky from BantyshKamenskii’s History of Little Russia (1822)

91

6.1 Jan Matejko, Bohdan Khmelnytsky Pledging Allegiance at Zboriv
(watercolor; 1859)

115

8.1 Members of the Hashomer organization—a postcard sent
from Mandatory Palestine to Europe before World War II

142

9.1 Mykola Ivasiuk (1865–1937), Bohdan Khmelnytsky Entering Kyiv
(1912) 155
10.1 Order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Second Class

170

10.2 Colonel Zalman Abramovich Frenkel (1908, Konotop–1986,
Moscow), awarded the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky,
Second Class by a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
of the USSR, April 28, 1945
180
12.1 Bohdan Stupka in the role of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Jerzy
Hoffman’s 1999 film With Fire and Sword

208

x Illustrations

Maps
I.1 Map of Eastern Europe ca. 1650

xxiv

I.2 The Cossack Hetmanate ca. 1650

10

Table
0.1 Sample list of place names with linguistic variants

xxi

Acknowledgments

Scholars of the humanities often comment that we work in isolation.
Editing this volume has, to the contrary, been an experience of ideal intellectual collaboration. All of the scholars whose work appears on these
pages have also contributed to the conceptual underpinnings of this book,
and without the benefit of their expertise this volume would not have the
depth and breadth that the subject demands. I have learned much from
speaking to each of them about the artistic and literary legacy of Bohdan
Khmel­nyts­ky and have sought their advice on editorial decisions. I want to
mention a few individuals in particular: Frank Sysyn has read drafts of many
of these chapters, including my own, and generously offered guidance on
maps, sources, and the issues surrounding historiography. Taras Koznars­ky
has been a wise and meticulous editor and interlocutor. Adam Teller and
­Judith Kornblatt have helped to read my chapter and others’. George
Grabowicz helped me formulate the project when it was still an idea.
I would like to thank the Judaic Studies Program at the University of
California, San Diego, for bringing the contributors together for a conference in April 2012, allowing us to share early drafts of these chapters and to
discuss the direction this book should take. The Judaic Studies Program also
assisted me with funding for the completion of this volume. The UkrainianJewish Encounters Initiative and the Russian, East European, and Eurasian
Studies Program at UCSD cosponsored the 2012 gathering and the former
awarded this volume a publication subvention. A Hellman Fellowship from
UCSD allowed me to begin my research on this topic and to begin planning the volume.

xii Acknowledgments

I am grateful to Eric Brandt, Friederike Sundaram, Tom Finnegan,
Mariana Raykov, and the rest of the team at Stanford University Press for
their work on, and belief in, this project, as well as series editors Norman
Naimark and Larry Wolff. Sibelan Forrester, Deborah Hertz, Izabela
Kalinowska, Martha Kelly, Lisa Lampert-Weissig, Matthias Lehmann,
William Propp, Steven Seegel, and Steven Zipperstein have given advice
and guidance. Jeff Edelstein, Teresa Kuruc, and Yuliya Ladygina provided editorial and research assistance. My partner and role model, Eran
Mukamel, has read, edited, encouraged, and given invaluable perspective.
Visualizing such a contentious region and time period is difficult.
Thanks go to Kelly Sandefer of Beehive mapping for creating a usable, nuanced map of the region, and to Marko Stech and Frank Sysyn for permission to reprint Wendy Johnson’s (of Johnson Cartographics) map of the
Cossack Hetmanate from Mykhailo Hrushevsky, History of Ukraine-Rusʹ
(vol. 9, book 1). For their permission to use images, thanks go to the State
Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, the Russian State Historical Museum
in Moscow, Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, Zodiak Jerzy Hoffman Film Production in Warsaw, the National Gallery in Lviv, and the Frenkel Family.

Chronology of Major Events Associated with
the Khmelnytsky Uprising and the Depiction
of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Amelia M. Glaser and Frank E. Sysyn

Late 1400s–early 1500s. Cossacks arise on the Slavic-Turkic borderland.
Zaporozhian Sich emerges on the Dnipro River.
1492. Expulsion of Jews from Spain and Italy. A small number of them
settle in Poland.
1495. Archduke Alexander expels Jews from Lithuania. Many settle
outside the Lithuanian border in Poland. Alexander later becomes
king of Poland and allows Jews to return.
1569. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is established through the
Union of Lublin. The central Ukrainian lands are transferred from
the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Kingdom of Poland.
1587–1632. Reign of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Grand
Duke of Lithuania.
1595 (?). Bohdan Khmelnytsky is born in the village of Subotiv, near
Chyhyryn.
1595–1596. The Metropolitan, some of the hierarchs, and part of the
Orthodox Metropolitanate of Kyiv accept the supremacy of the
pope at the Union of Brest.
1598–1613. Time of Troubles in Muscovy. Polish-Lithuanian intervention
with the participation of Zaporozhian Cossacks.
1610s. Khmelnytsky attends Jesuit Academy (in Jarosław or Lviv).

xiv  Chronology of Major Events

1613–1645. Mikhail I of Russia, the first Muscovite Tsar of the house of
Romanov.
1619–1621. War between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth. Bohdan Khmelnytsky and his father Mykhailo
take part in the Battle of Cecora (also known as the Battle of
Ţuţora). Khmelnytsky’s father is killed. Khmelnytsky is captured
and spends two years in Ottoman captivity.
1625–1630 and 1637–1638. Major Zaporozhian Cossack uprisings against
the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, culminating in Cossack
defeat and a harsh ordinance restricting Cossack self-governance in
1638.
1632–1648. Reign of Władysław IV Vasa, King of Poland and Grand
Duke of Lithuania
1637. Khmelnytsky becomes military chancellor of the Zaporozhian Host.
1638. Khmelnytsky participates in Cossack delegation to King
Władysław IV.
1645. Khmelnytsky may have served in Cossack detachments in France.
1645–1676. Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich rules Muscovy.
1646. Władysław IV Vasa solicits Cossack aid in the campaign against
the Crimean Khanate and the planned war against the Ottoman
Empire. Khmelnytsky is one of the Cossack envoys to the king.
1647. The Chyhyryn starosta Daniel Czapliński evicts Khmelnytsky from
his estate.
1648. Khmelnytsky, assuming the post of hetman of the Zaporozhian
Cossacks, allies with the Crimean Tatars and leads a Cossack
revolt, igniting a general Ukrainian insurrection. The Cossacks
defeat the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1648. The uprising involves massacres of Jewish communities, including
in Nemyriv on the twentieth of Nisan, a fast-day in honor of the
martyrs of the Crusades. Rabbis later declare it a day of mourning
for the Jewish victims of the Cossack uprising as well.
1648. Shabetai Tsevi first proclaims himself Messiah.

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