Pentateuchal Traditions in the Late Second Temple Period Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism

by Akio Moriya and Gohei Hata

Pentateuchal Traditions in the Late Second Temple Period Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism Author Akio Moriya and Gohei Hata Isbn 9789004184534 File size 1 4 MB Year 2012 Pages 300 Language English File format PDF Category Religion The main theme of the collected essays is expressed clearly in the following statement by Eugene Ulrich in the beginning of his article What was the state of the Pentateuch during the Second Temple period Was it basically complete and static at the time of Ezra or was it still developing in substantial ways To pursue this main theme the International

Publisher :

Author : Akio Moriya and Gohei Hata

ISBN : 9789004184534

Year : 2012

Language: English

File Size : 1.4 MB

Category : Religion

Supplements
to the

Journal for the Study
of Judaism
Editor

Benjamin G. Wright, III
Department of Religion Studies, Lehigh University
Associate Editors

Florentino García Martínez
Qumran Institute, University of Groningen

Hindy Najman
Yale University and Department and Centre for the Study of Religion,
University of Toronto
Advisory Board

g. bohak – j.j. collins – j. duhaime – p.w. van der horst –
a.k. petersen – m. popovic´ – j.t.a.g.m. van ruiten –
j.sievers – g. stemberger – e.j.c. tigchelaar –
j. magliano-tromp

VOLUME 158

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.nl/jsjs

Pentateuchal Traditions in the
Late Second Temple Period
Proceedings of the International Workshop in Tokyo,
August 28–31, 2007

Edited by

Akio Moriya
Gohei Hata

LEIDEN • BOSTON
2012

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pentateuchal traditions in the late Second Temple period : proceedings of the international
workshop in Tokyo, August 28-31, 2007 / edited by Akio Moriya and Gohei Hata.
p. cm. – (Supplements to the Journal for the study of Judaism, ISSN 1384-2161 ; v. 158)
Includes index.
ISBN 978-90-04-18453-4 (hardback : alk. paper)
1. Bible. O.T. Pentateuch–History–Congresses. 2. Bible. O.T. Pentateuch–Criticism,
interpretation, etc–Congresses. 3. Judaism–History–Post-exilic period, 586 B.C.-210
A.D.–Congresses. 4. Dead Sea scrolls–Relation to the Old Testament–Congresses. 5. Bible.
N.T.–Relation to the Old Testament–Congresses. I. Moriya, Akio. II. Hata, Gohei, 1942BS1225.52.P4675 2012
222'.1066–dc23
2011049368

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ISSN 1384-2161
ISBN 978 90 04 18453 4 (hardback)
ISBN 978 90 04 22360 8 (e-book)
Copyright 2012 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.
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In Memory of
Kazuko Hata
(24.02.1948 – 01.01.2012)

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Opening Address to the International Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
PART I

PENTATEUCHAL TRADITIONS
The Doctrine of Creation ex nihilo and the Translation of t¯ohû
w¯ab¯ohû . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toshio David Tsumura

3

One Decalogue in Different Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Yuichi Osumi
The Evolutionary Growth of the Pentateuch in the Second Temple
Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Eugene Ulrich
The Scribal and Textual Transmission of the Torah Analyzed in Light
of Its Sanctity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Emanuel Tov
PART II

HELLENISTIC JUDAISM AND THE PENTATEUCH
In the Beginning was a Greek Translation of Genesis and Exodus . . . . . . 75
Gohei Hata
Which Version of the Greek Bible did Philo Read? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Gregory E. Sterling
The Importance of the Latter Half of Josephus’s Judaean Antiquities
for His Roman Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Steve Mason

viii

contents
PART III

DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND THE PENTATEUCH
The Interpretation of Genesis in the Dead Sea Scrolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
John J. Collins
Exegesis of Pentateuchal Legislation in Jubilees and Related Texts
Found at Qumran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
James C. VanderKam
The Pentateuch Reflected in the Aramaic Documents of the Dead
Sea Scrolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Akio Moriya
PART IV

THE NEW TESTAMENT AND THE PENTATEUCH
The Septuagint and the Transition of the Gospel Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Migaku Sato
The Reception of the Torah in Mark: The Question about the
Greatest Commandment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Adela Yarbro Collins
Creation and Sacred Space: The Reuse of Key Pentateuchal Themes
by Philo, the Fourth Evangelist, and the Epistle to the Hebrews . . . 243
Harold W. Attridge
SPECIAL CONTRIBUTION
A Geographical Horizon in the Textual Transmission of
Pentateuch—Searching for Further Points of Contact between
East and West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Yutaka Ikeda
INDICES
Index of Modern Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Index of Ancient Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Hebrew Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Ancient Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

contents

ix

Apocrypha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
New Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Pseudepigraphica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Dead Sea Scrolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Philo and Josephus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Rabbinic Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Classical Authors and Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The editors would like to express their appreciation to the contributors of
this volume of collected essays, which was first read at the International
Workshop on the Study of the Pentateuch with Special Emphasis on Textual
Transmission History in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods held August 28–
31, 2007 in Tokyo. The contributors kindly accepted our invitation to this
workshop, made necessary schedule arrangement, and made a long trip to
Japan from the United States, Canada, England, and Israel to stay in Tokyo
during the hottest and most humid season.
Many thanks are due to Professor Emanuel Tov. The idea to hold an international workshop in Tokyo was born specifically from his lectures delivered at several universities in Tokyo and Kyoto during his sabbatical leave in
2006. The Japanese scholars who listened to his lectures wished for further
opportunity to study the Dead Sea Scrolls with highly renowned scholars
in the field. In response to the encouragement that Professor Tov himself
earnestly made, the workshop in Tokyo was able to be held a year later.
Professor Tov made a significant contribution in organizing the workshop,
selecting readers and providing insightful ideas for preparations.
This publication could not have been realized without the support of Professor John J. Collins in recommending to the editorial board that this be
added to the JSJS volume. We would also like to thank Professor Benjamin
G. Wright, III, chief editor of the series, for accepting our proposal. Lastly,
Professor Hindy Najman, coeditor of the series, deserves our warmest gratitude for her professional advice in the vexatious editorial process.
We would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support granted by
the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science in holding the International
Workshop in August 2007. Many thanks are also due to the International
House of Japan for providing a hospitable venue.
Special mention must also be made of Dr. Atsuhiro Asano, the secretary
of the workshop, and Ms. Saya Iijima, the assistant secretary and then a
student of Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, for their logistic support
and keen interest in managing the workshop effectively. Special thanks are
due to Takuma Sugie, a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate School, University
of Tsukuba, who proofread the whole text and also labored elaborately in
preparing the indices at the last stage for the publication. To all of them we
offer profound gratitude.

xii

acknowledgements

Last but not least, we thank each and every participant for making this
Workshop a great success.
Akio Moriya, Tokyo Woman’s Christian University
Gohei Hata, Tama Art University, Tokyo

OPENING ADDRESS TO THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

Akio Moriya
Ladies and Gentlemen, on behalf of the executive committee I should like to
welcome you to the International Workshop on the Study of the Pentateuch
with Special Emphasis on Textual Transmission History in the Hellenistic
and Roman Periods. It is my honor and privilege to hereby declare the opening of the International Workshop in Tokyo as the chair of the Executive
Committee for this Workshop.
As well reflected in its title, this workshop has two purposes. The first one is
to elucidate the transmission history of the Hebrew and Greek Pentateuch
with special attention to the variant readings from the Dead Sea Scrolls. The
second one, closely related to and perhaps inseparable from the first one, is
to examine from a broader perspective the special use of the Pentateuch in
the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
In order to successfully fulfill these two purposes, nine renowned scholars from abroad and seven Japanese scholars have been invited as featured
speakers to deepen mutual understandings in these interdisciplinary studies. It is indeed my honor to be able to introduce you this afternoon these
featured speakers in the alphabetical order.
Prof. Harold W. Attridge
Prof. John J. Collins
Prof. Gohei Hata
Prof. Yutaka Ikeda
Prof. Steve Mason
Prof. Akio Moriya
Prof. Yuichi Osumi
Prof. Tessa Rajak
Prof. Migaku Sato
Prof. Gregory E. Sterling
Prof. Emanuel Tov
Prof. David Toshio Tsumura
Prof. Eugene Ulrich
Prof. James C. VanderKam
Prof. Tetsuo Yamaga
Prof. Adela Yarbro Collins

Yale University, New Haven
Yale University, New Haven
Tama Art University, Tokyo
Professor Emeritus, Tsukuba University
York University, Toronto
Tokyo Woman’s Christian University, Tokyo
Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, Tokyo
Reading University, Reading, UK. She is now Visiting Professor at Yale University, New Haven
St. Paul’s University, or Rikkyo University, Tokyo
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame
Hebrew University, Jerusalem
Japan Bible Seminary, Tokyo
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame
Hokusei Gakuen University, Sapporo
Yale University, New Haven

xiv

akio moriya

Let me briefly explain how this workshop was proposed and has become
a reality. In year 2005 five of us, namely, Prof. Hata, Prof. Sekine, Prof. Sato,
Prof. Yamaga and myself, received a government grant for the study of
the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Septuagint. The grant was very competitive
because the government does not consider this area very significant in its
cultural and historical contexts. Upon hearing the good result, thus, we
rejoiced as if we had won the first prize in a lottery. In the year that followed
this, that is in year 2006, we applied for another grant to hold this workshop.
Luckily enough, again, we won the grant. After the government agency
approved our workshop plan, invitation letters were sent to world-famous
scholars, and we appreciated the positive responses. Once again we should
like to express our sincere gratitude for the speakers’ kind acceptance of our
invitation and enthusiastic participation in the workshop.
As already mentioned, this workshop is mainly sponsored by the Japan
Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), a subordinate agency of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese
Government. But let us not forget to mention other contributors. Thanks to
the following institutes for their support:
The Japanese Biblical Institute
The Society for Old Testament Study in Japan
Japan Society of New Testament Studies
Japan Bible Society.

The current workshop concentrates on the torah (The Five Books of Moses).
If this workshop is successful, and I am sure it will turn out so during the next
few days, we wish to organize another workshop focusing on the second
part of MT, namely, nevi" im (The Prophets), and even a third one that is
on the kethuvim (The Writings). We have to go through a long process of
preparing proposals and submitting applications to our government, but
I hope you would all agree with me that this will be a great idea not only
for the biblical scholars in Japan but also for the international community.
Please cross your fingers and toes for our success.
Let me explain the time table for this afternoon. Prof. Gohei Hata’s keynote address will follow my speech. After his address, a reception will start
at 6 o’clock. As shown in the program, 16 papers in total will be read during
the workshop, starting at 9 o’clock tomorrow morning. I would like to ask
some of you to preside over each session.
Finally, I should like to share another piece of good news with you. That is
regarding the publication of the papers to be read in this workshop. Brill,

opening address to the international workshop

xv

Leiden (in the Netherlands), has kindly agreed to publish them in a single
book. This is made possible courtesy of Prof. John Collins. A Japanese edition
is also planned. Kyoto University Press has accepted our proposal; thanks to
Prof. Hata’s effort on this.
I hope every one of you will enjoy this conference, despite the heat
outside, and have a nice time throughout the workshop.
At the very end of this address, let me introduce you Dr. Atsuhiro Asano,
our secretary of the workshop. Our executive members, Professors Hata,
Sato, Yamaga and I, spending much time, worked hard to organize and set
the stage for the workshop, and finally found it almost impossible for us to
do business affairs of the workshop by ourselves. So, we asked Dr. Asano to
assist us in May this year. He accepted our proposal and did a nice job. He
will also serve as the moderator of the whole sessions.
Thank you very much for your attention.
August 28, 2007

PART ONE

PENTATEUCHAL TRADITIONS

THE DOCTRINE OF CREATION EX NIHILO
¯
¯ OHÛ
¯
AND THE TRANSLATION OF TOHÛ
WAB

David Toshio Tsumura

A. Is creatio ex nihilo a Biblical Concept?
1. Doctrine of creatio ex nihilo
The Christian church has long held the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo (“creation out of nothing”), though the phrase itself does not appear in the Bible.
For example, the Westminister Confession of Faith (1646) asserts that “It
pleased God … in the beginning, to create or make of nothing the world,
and all things therein” (IV.I). Augustine, in his Confessions 12.7, held that God
“created heaven and earth out of nothing (de nihilo).”1
This doctrine, as G. May explains, holds “the absolutely unconditioned
nature of the creation” and “specifies God’s omnipotence as its sole
ground.”2 Hence, creatio ex nihilo generally implies that all things are ontologically dependent upon God and that the universe had a beginning.
Thus, the Christian doctrine of creatio ex nihilo holds that God created the
universe without preexisting materials. “This counteracts the pantheistic
implication that matter is eternal, as well as the dualistic implication that
another kind of power stands eternally over against God.”3
According to G. May, this doctrine of creatio ex nihilo “emerges only as
the result of the church’s struggle with Platonism and its extreme form,
Gnosticism.”4 This early Christian anti-Gnostic controversy reached its peak
during the second half of the 2nd century ad when Irenaeus was refuting the
Gnostic philosophical teachings. He says:

1 C.E. Gunton, The Triune Creator: A Historical and Systematic Study (Edinburgh Studies
in Constructive Theology; Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1998), 73–86.
2 G. May, Creatio ex Nihilo: The Doctrine of ‘Creation out of Nothing’ in Early Christian
Thought (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1994), xi.
3 T.C. Oden, Systematic Theology. Volume One: The Living God (San Francisco: Harper &
Row, 1987), 227.
4 May, Creatio ex Nihilo, 164–178. See Gunton, The Triune Creator, 15, n. 2.

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