Biostatistics A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences 10th Edition

by Wayne W. Daniel, Chad L. Cross

Biostatistics A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences 10th Edition This 10th edition of Biostatistics A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences 10th Edition should appeal to the same audience for which the first nine editions were written advanced undergraduate students beginning graduate students and health professionals in need of a reference book on statistical methodology Like its predecessors this edition requires few mathematical prerequisites Only reasonable proficiency in algebra is required for an understanding of the concepts and method

Publisher : Wiley

Author : Wayne W. Daniel, Chad L. Cross

ISBN : 9781118302798

Year : 2013

Language: en

File Size : 17.25 MB

Category : Science Math

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Page 1

TENTH EDITION

BIOSTATISTICS
A Foundation for Analysis
in the Health Sciences

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TENTH EDITION

BIOSTATISTICS
A Foundation for Analysis
in the Health Sciences

WAYNE W. DANIEL, PH.D.
Professor Emeritus
Georgia State University

C H A D L . C R O S S , P H . D . , P S T A T R
Statistician
Office of Informatics and Analytics
Veterans Health Administration
Associate Graduate Faculty
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Daniel, Wayne W., 1929Biostatistics : a foundation for analysis in the health sciences / Wayne W.
Daniel, Chad Lee Cross. — Tenth edition.
pages cm
Includes index.
ISBN 978-1-118-30279-8 (cloth)
1. Medical statistics. 2. Biometry. I. Cross, Chad Lee, 1971- II. Title.
RA409.D35 2013
2012038459
610.72 0 7—dc23
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Dr. Daniel
To my children, Jean, Carolyn,
and John, and to the memory of
their mother, my wife, Mary.

Dr. Cross
To my wife Pamela
and to my children, Annabella Grace
and Breanna Faith.

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PREFACE
This 10th edition of Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences was
prepared with the objective of appealing to a wide audience. Previous editions of the book
have been used by the authors and their colleagues in a variety of contexts. For undergraduates, this edition should provide an introduction to statistical concepts for students in
the biosciences, health sciences, and for mathematics majors desiring exposure to applied
statistical concepts. Like its predecessors, this edition is designed to meet the needs of
beginning graduate students in various fields such as nursing, applied sciences, and public
health who are seeking a strong foundation in quantitative methods. For professionals
already working in the health field, this edition can serve as a useful desk reference.
The breadth of coverage provided in this text, along with the hundreds of practical
exercises, allow instructors extensive flexibility in designing courses at many levels. To
that end, we offer below some ideas on topical coverage that we have found to be useful in
the classroom setting.
Like the previous editions of this book, this edition requires few mathematical prerequisites beyond a solid proficiency in college algebra. We have maintained an emphasis
on practical and intuitive understanding of principles rather than on abstract concepts that
underlie some methods, and that require greater mathematical sophistication. With that in
mind, we have maintained a reliance on problem sets and examples taken directly from the
health sciences literature instead of contrived examples. We believe that this makes the text
more interesting for students, and more practical for practicing health professionals who
reference the text while performing their work duties.
For most of the examples and statistical techniques covered in this edition, we
discuss the use of computer software for calculations. Experience has informed our
decision to include example printouts from a variety of statistical software in this edition
(e.g., MINITAB, SAS, SPSS, and R). We feel that the inclusion of examples from these
particular packages, which are generally the most commonly utilized by practitioners,
provides a rich presentation of the material and allows the student the opportunity to
appreciate the various technologies used by practicing statisticians.

CHANGES AND UPDATES TO THIS EDITION
The majority of the chapters include corrections and clarifications that enhance the material
that is presented and make it more readable and accessible to the audience. We did,
however, make several specific changes and improvements that we believe are valuable
contributions to this edition, and we thank the reviewers of the previous edition for their
comments and suggestions in that regard.

vii

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Specific changes to this edition include additional text concerning measures of
dispersion in Chapter 2, additional text and examples using program R in Chapter 6, a new
introduction to linear models in Chapter 8 that ties together the regression and ANOVA
concepts in Chapters 8–11, the addition of two-factor repeated measures ANOVA in
Chapter 8, a discussion of the similarities of ANOVA and regression in Chapter 11,
and extensive new text and examples on testing the fit of logistic regression models in
Chapter 11.
Most important to this new edition is a new Chapter 14 on Survival Analysis. This
new chapter was borne out of requests from reviewers of the text and from the experience
of the authors in terms of the growing use of these methods in applied research. In this
new chapter, we included some of the material found in Chapter 12 in previous editions,
and added extensive material and examples. We provide introductory coverage of
censoring, Kaplan–Meier estimates, methods for comparing survival curves, and the
Cox Regression Proportional Hazards model. Owing to this new material, we elected
to move the contents of the vital statistics chapter to a new Chapter 15 and make it
available online (www.wiley.com/college/daniel).

COURSE COVERAGE IDEAS
In the table below we provide some suggestions for topical coverage in a variety of
contexts, with “X” indicating those chapters we believe are most relevant for a variety of
courses for which this text is appropriate. The text has been designed to be flexible in order
to accommodate various teaching styles and various course presentations. Although the
text is designed with progressive presentation of concepts in mind, certain of the topics may
be skipped or covered briefly so that focus can be placed on concepts important to
instructors.

Course

Chapters
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Undergraduate course for health
sciences students

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

O

O

X

O

O

O

Undergraduate course in
applied statistics for
mathematics majors

X

O

O

O

X

X

X

X

X

X

O

X

X

X

O

First biostatistics course for
beginning graduate students

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

O

X

X

X

O

Biostatistics course for graduate
health sciences students who
have completed an introductory
statistics course

X

O

O

O

O

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X: Suggested coverage; O: Optional coverage.

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PREFACE

ix

SUPPLEMENTS
Instructor’s Solutions Manual. Prepared by Dr. Chad Cross, this manual includes
solutions to all problems found in the text. This manual is available only to instructors
who have adopted the text.
Student Solutions Manual. Prepared by Dr. Chad Cross, this manual includes solutions
to all odd-numbered exercises. This manual may be packaged with the text at a discounted
price.
Data Sets. More than 250 data sets are available online to accompany the text. These data
sets include those data presented in examples, exercises, review exercises, and the large
data sets found in some chapters. These are available in SAS, SPSS, and Minitab formats
as well as CSV format for importing into other programs. Data are available for downloading at
www.wiley.com/college/daniel
Those without Internet access may contact Wiley directly at 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ
07030-5774; telephone: 1-877-762-2974.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many reviewers, students, and faculty have made contributions to this text through their
careful review, inquisitive questions, and professional discussion of topics. In particular,
we would like to thank Dr. Sheniz Moonie of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Dr. Roy
T. Sabo of Virginia Commonwealth University; and Dr. Derek Webb, Bemidji State
University for their useful comments on the ninth edition of this text.
There are three additional important acknowledgments that must be made to
important contributors of the text. Dr. John. P. Holcomb of Cleveland State University
updated many of the examples and exercises found in the text. Dr. Edward Danial of
Morgan State University provided an extensive accuracy review of the ninth edition of the
text, and his valuable comments added greatly to the book. Dr. Jodi B. A. McKibben of the
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences provided an extensive accuracy
review of the current edition of the book.
We wish to acknowledge the cooperation of Minitab, Inc. for making available
to the authors over many years and editions of the book the latest versions of their
software.
Thanks are due to Professors Geoffrey Churchill and Brian Schott of Georgia State
University who wrote computer programs for generating some of the Appendix tables,
and to Professor Lillian Lin, who read and commented on the logistic regression material
in earlier editions of the book. Additionally, Dr. James T. Wassell provided useful

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PREFACE

assistance with some of the survival analysis methods presented in earlier editions of
the text.
We are grateful to the many researchers in the health sciences field who publish their
results and hence make available data that provide valuable practice to the students of
biostatistics.
Wayne W. Daniel
Chad L. Cross


The views presented in this book are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S.
Department of Veterans Affairs.

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BRIEF CONTENTS
1

INTRODUCTION TO BIOSTATISTICS

11

REGRESSION ANALYSIS: SOME
ADDITIONAL TECHNIQUES

2

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

539

3

SOME BASIC PROBABILITY
CONCEPTS

12

THE CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION
AND THE ANALYSIS OF
FREQUENCIES

65

600

4

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

92

13

NONPARAMETRIC AND
DISTRIBUTION-FREE STATISTICS

5

SOME IMPORTANT SAMPLING
DISTRIBUTIONS

670

134

14

SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

750

6

ESTIMATION

161

15

VITAL STATISTICS (ONLINE)

7

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

214

APPENDIX: STATISTICAL TABLES

8

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

304

9

SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION AND
CORRELATION

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED
EXERCISES

10

MULTIPLE REGRESSION AND
CORRELATION

1
19

413

INDEX

A-1

A-107
I-1

489

xi

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CONTENTS
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

3.6

INTRODUCTION TO BIOSTATISTICS

1

Introduction
2
Some Basic Concepts
2
Measurement and Measurement Scales
5
Sampling and Statistical Inference
7
The Scientific Method and the Design of
Experiments
13
Computers and Biostatistical Analysis
15
Summary
16
Review Questions and Exercises
17
References
18

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Introduction
20
The Ordered Array
20
Grouped Data: The Frequency Distribution
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central
Tendency
38
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Dispersion
Summary
55
Review Questions and Exercises
57
References
63

SOME BASIC PROBABILITY
CONCEPTS
Introduction
65
Two Views of Probability: Objective and
Subjective
66
Elementary Properties of Probability
68
Calculating the Probability of an Event
69
Bayes’ Theorem, Screening Tests, Sensitivity,
Specificity, and Predictive Value Positive and
Negative
78
Summary
84

Review Questions and Exercises
References
90

4
4.1
4.2

19

22

4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

5

43
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

65

5.5
5.6
5.7

6
6.1
6.2

85

92

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Introduction
93
Probability Distributions of Discrete
Variables
93
The Binomial Distribution
99
The Poisson Distribution
108
Continuous Probability Distributions
113
The Normal Distribution
116
Normal Distribution Applications
122
Summary
128
Review Questions and Exercises
130
References
133

SOME IMPORTANT SAMPLING
DISTRIBUTIONS

134

Introduction
134
Sampling Distributions
135
Distribution of the Sample Mean
136
Distribution of the Difference Between Two
Sample Means
145
Distribution of the Sample Proportion
150
Distribution of the Difference Between Two
Sample Proportions
154
Summary
157
Review Questions and Exercises
158
References
160

ESTIMATION
Introduction
162
Confidence Interval for a Population Mean

161
165

xiii

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