Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

by Bonnie H. Ownley, Robert N. Trigiano

Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises Continuing in the tradition of its predecessors this new edition combines an informal easy to read style with a thorough introduction to concepts and terminology of plant pathology After reviewing fundamental concepts the book discusses groups of plant pathogens and molecular tools for studying them pathogen interactions epidemiology and disease control and special topics in plant pathology The book details various disease causing organisms including viruses fungi prokaryotics nemato

Publisher : CRC Press

Author : Bonnie H. Ownley, Robert N. Trigiano (eds.)

ISBN : 9781466500815

Year : 2016

Language: en

File Size : 103.78 MB

Category : Science Math

Plant Pathology
Concepts and Laboratory Exercises
THIRD EDITION

Plant Pathology
Concepts and Laboratory Exercises
THIRD EDITION

Edited by

Bonnie H. Ownley
Robert N. Trigiano

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the
Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

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Version Date: 20160912
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Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data
Names: Ownley, Bonnie H., editor. | Trigiano, R. N. (Robert Nicholas), 1953editor.
Title: Plant pathology concepts and laboratory exercises / editors: Bonnie H.
Ownley and Robert N. Trigiano.
Description: Third edition. | Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis, 2016. | Includes
bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016013150 | ISBN 9781466500815 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Plant diseases--Laboratory manuals.
Classification: LCC SB732.56 .P63 2016 | DDC 632/.3--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016013150
Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com
and the CRC Press Web site at
http://www.crcpress.com

Contents
Preface................................................................................................................................................................................ ix
Acknowledgments .............................................................................................................................................................. xi
Editors .............................................................................................................................................................................. xiii
Contributors .......................................................................................................................................................................xv
Part I
Introductory Concepts
Chapter 1

What Is Plant Pathology? ...............................................................................................................................3

H. David Shew and Barbara B. Shew
Chapter 2

Laboratory Skills: Safety and Preparation of Culture Media and Solutions ...............................................23

Robert N. Trigiano and Bonnie H. Ownley
Chapter 3

Proper Use of Compound and Stereo Microscopes .....................................................................................33

David T. Webb
Part II
Groups of Plant Pathogens and Abiotic Disorders
Chapter 4

Plant Pathogenic Viruses..............................................................................................................................51

Marie A.C. Langham and Judith K. Brown
Chapter 5

Plant Pathogenic Prokaryotes.......................................................................................................................81

Carolee T. Bull, Steven T. Koike, Alejandra I. Huerta, Teresa M. Jardini, Stacy J. Mauzey, Isael Rubio, and
Ana B. Zacaroni
Chapter 6

Plant-Parasitic Nematodes ..........................................................................................................................103

Ernest C. Bernard and James P. Noe
Chapter 7

An Overview of Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Fungus-Like Organisms .....................................................121

Ann Brooks Gould
Chapter 8

Oomycota: The Fungus-Like Organisms ...................................................................................................137

Robert N. Trigiano, Otmar Spring, Alan S. Windham, Richard E. Baird, Steven N. Jeffers, and Kurt H. Lamour
Chapter 9

Non-Oomycota Zoosporic Plant Pathogens ...............................................................................................155

Sharon E. Mozley-Standridge, David Porter, and Marc A. Cubeta

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Contents

Chapter 10 Plant Pathogenic Zygomycetes ................................................................................................................... 175
Kathie T. Hodge
Chapter 11 Taphrinomycete and Saccharomycete Pathogens.......................................................................................183
Margery L. Daughtrey, Kathie T. Hodge, and Nina Shishkoff
Chapter 12 The Powdery Mildews................................................................................................................................191
Margery L. Daughtrey, Kathie T. Hodge, and Nina Shishkoff
Chapter 13 Plant Pathogenic Species of the Ascomycota: Pezizomycotina .................................................................205
Ning Zhang, Richard E. Baird, and Robert N. Trigiano
Chapter 14 Rust and Smut Diseases .............................................................................................................................221
Lori M. Carris and Larry J. Littlefield
Chapter 15 Basidiomycota: Diverse Complex of Saprophytic, Parasitic, and Symbiotic Fungi...................................237
Richard E. Baird, C. Elizabeth Stokes, and Alan S. Windham
Chapter 16 Soilborne Plant Pathogens ..........................................................................................................................249
Bonnie H. Ownley and D. Michael Benson
Chapter 17 Parasitic Plants ...........................................................................................................................................277
Daniel L. Nickrent and Lytton J. Musselman
Chapter 18 Abiotic Plant Disorders ..............................................................................................................................289
Robert E. Schutzki, Bert Cregg, Tom Creswell, and Gail Ruhl
Part III
Plant–Pathogen Interactions
Chapter 19 Virulence Factors Produced by Plant Pathogenic Bacteria ........................................................................305
Rebecca Ann Melanson and Jong Hyun Ham
Chapter 20 Physical and Physiological Host Defenses ................................................................................................. 319
Kimberly D. Gwinn and David I. Yates
Chapter 21 Disruption of Plant Function ......................................................................................................................329
Melissa B. Riley
Part IV
Epidemiology and Disease Control
Chapter 22 Plant Disease Epidemiology.......................................................................................................................345
Kira L. Bowen

Contents

vii

Chapter 23 Host Resistance ..........................................................................................................................................363
Peter Balint-Kurti, H. David Shew, and Christina Cowger
Chapter 24 Plant–Fungal Interactions at the Molecular Level: The Biological Approach to Fungal
Pathogen Control ........................................................................................................................................381
Ricardo Manuel de Seixas Boavida Ferreira and Sara Alexandra Valadas da Silva Monteiro
Chapter 25 Cultural Management of Plant Diseases ....................................................................................................401
Craig S. Rothrock and Terry N. Spurlock
Chapter 26 Chemical Control of Plant Diseases Caused by Fungi ..............................................................................415
Jason E. Woodward and Alan S. Windham
Chapter 27 Management of Plant Pathogens and Pests by Microbial Biological Control Agents................................425
Dmitri V. Mavrodi, Olga V. Mavrodi, Leonardo De La Fuente, Blanca B. Landa, Linda S. Thomashow, and
David M. Weller
Chapter 28 Integrated Pest Management ......................................................................................................................441
Anton Baudoin
Chapter 29 Organic Agriculture and Plant Disease......................................................................................................453
David M. Butler and Erin N. Rosskopf
Part V
Special Topics
Chapter 30 Plant Disease Diagnostics ..........................................................................................................................469
Kevin L. Ong
Chapter 31 Identifying Obligate, Biotrophic Fungi (and Hosts) Using the Sequence of the
Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region .................................................................................................483
Robert N. Trigiano and Bonnie H. Ownley
Chapter 32 Extracellular Enzymes Produced by Fungi and Bacteria ..........................................................................495
Robert N. Trigiano and Laura E. Poplawski
Chapter 33 Molecular Tools for Studying Genetic Diversity in Plant Pathogens ......................................................... 517
Timothy A. Rinehart, Denita Hadziabdic, Phillip A. Wadl, and Robert N. Trigiano
Glossary ..........................................................................................................................................................................541
Index ................................................................................................................................................................................567

Preface
We thank those instructors who have adopted the first two
editions of Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory
Exercises as a guide for their classes. We also are grateful
to them and their students and colleagues for providing
invaluable feedback and criticism of the previous editions. We have incorporated many of their ideas into this
new, third edition, which includes combining concept
and laboratory chapters into one presentation, almost all
figures in color, more technical presentations of some
topics, a chapter on safety in the laboratory, treatment of
organic agriculture and disease, and more extensive chapters about disease diagnostics. We have also improved the
binding of the book, which is now spiral bound, allowing
the students to access any page easily.
This edition of Plant Pathology Concepts and
Laboratory Exercises is intended to serve as a primary
text for introductory courses and furnishes instructors
and students alike with a broad consideration of this
important and growing field. It presents many useful
protocols and procedures and thus serves as a valuable
reference to researchers as well as students in beginning and advanced plant pathology and allied biological sciences courses. The book is intentionally written
informally to some extent as it provides the reader with
a minimum number of references, but does not lose any
essential information or accuracy. Broad topic chapters
are authored by specialists with considerable experience
in the field and are supported by one or more laboratory
exercises illustrating the central concepts of the topic.
Each chapter begins with a “Concept Box” highlighting
some of the more important ideas contained within the
chapter and signals students to read carefully for these
primary topics. There is an extensive glossary, which
appear as bolded words in each chapter. Collectively, the
laboratory exercises are exceptionally diverse in nature,
providing something for beginning to advanced students. Most importantly, the authors have successfully
completed the exercises/experiments many times, often
with either plant pathology or biology classes or in their
own research laboratories. All the laboratory protocols
are written in procedure boxes that provide step-by-step,
easy-to-follow instructions. A unique feature of this text
is that the authors have provided the expected results of
each of the experiments in general terms. At the end of
each exercise, there are a series of questions designed to
provoke individual thought and critical examination of the
experiment and results. Our intention is that instructors

will not attempt to do all the experiments in each chapter,
but rather select one or two for each concept that serves
the needs and interests of their particular class. For an
advanced class, other experiments may be assigned to
resourceful students. We caution instructors and students
to obtain the proper documents for transport and use of
plant pathogenic organisms and to properly dispose of
cultures and plant materials at the end of the laboratory
exercises. We also support mandatory safety training that
is typically available online at many institutions.
This book is divided into five primary sections:
Introductory Concepts, Groups of Plant Pathogens
and Abiotic Disorders, Plant–Pathogen Interactions,
Epidemiology and Disease Control, and Special Topics.
Chapter 1 in Part I introduces students to the basic concepts of plant pathology including some historical perspectives, fundamental ideas of what is disease, how
disease relates to environment, the host, and time, and
provides a very broad overview of organisms that cause
disease. Chapter 2 is a new topic in the third edition and
describes laboratory safety, media preparation, and solutions. Chapter 3 introduces students to the fundamentals
of microscopy, which is a topic often omitted in biological textbooks. Part II includes chapters that detail various disease-causing organisms, plant parasitic plants, and
the causes of abiotic diseases. This section begins with a
consideration of viruses (Chapter 4), prokaryotic organisms (Chapter 5), and nematodes (Chapter 6). Chapter 7
provides a very broad overview of pathogenic species in
the Oomycota (fungus-like organisms) and pathogenic
true fungi. The next eight chapters are devoted to species in the Oomycota and various phyla of fungi followed
by chapters that focus on soilborne plant pathogens,
parasitic seed plants, and disorders caused by abiotic
agents. Part III explores plant–pathogen interactions in
Chapters 19–21 including treatments of virulence factors, pathogen attack strategies, extracellular enzymes,
host defenses, and disruption of plant function. Part IV is
anchored with an extensive chapter (Chapter 22) outlining the basic concepts of epidemiology, which is followed
in turn by several chapters detailing various strategies for
disease control, including host resistance (Chapter 23),
plant–fungal interactions (Chapter 24), cultural management of plant disease (Chapter 25), chemical control
of disease (Chapter 26), use of microbial control agents
(Chapter  27), and integrated pest management (IPM)
strategies (Chapter 28). The concluding chapter in this
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section is an often suggested topic, organic agricultural and
plant disease (Chapter 29). Part V is devoted to the treatment of plant disease diagnostics (Chapter 30) and identifying disease-causing organisms using molecular techniques
(Chapter 31). Chapter 32 relates fungal and bacterial physiology/nutrition to disease via extracellular enzyme production. This chapter contains many valuable techniques that
are applicable to other fields of science. Lastly, Chapter 33
provides explanations and exercises for molecular techniques used in plant pathology and other fields of study.
It is our hope that students and instructors find the
format, level, and amount of information contained in

Preface

the book to be appropriate for an introductory course
and some advanced courses. The presentation style
has been used very successfully in other books and
with the addition of the extensive glossary, useful
case studies, and concept boxes, students should find
the format stimulating and conducive for learning. We
invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for
improvements.
B.H. Ownley
R.N. Trigiano
The University of Tennessee

Acknowledgments
We wish to recognize and applaud the extraordinary
efforts and talents of all the contributing authors—their
creativity, support, advice, understanding, and especially
patience throughout the process of developing the third
edition of Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory
Exercises were phenomenal. We express our gratitude
to the Tennessee Institute of Agriculture for permitting
us the time and financial support necessary to complete

this project. We thank our colleagues and students who
suggested changes to the chapters and the arrangement
in the text. We extend very special thanks to Alan S.
Windham (The University of Tennessee) and David Shew
(North Carolina State University) for the fantastic images
donated to this project. We also express our sincere gratitude to our families for always supporting us during the
completion of this book.

xi

Editors
Dr. Bonnie H. Ownley is a professor of plant pathology
in the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at
The University of Tennessee in Knoxville. She received
her B.S. in biology from the University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill, M.S. in microbiology from Auburn
University, Alabama, and PhD in plant pathology, with
a minor in soil science, from North Carolina State
University, Raleigh. She was a postdoctoral research fellow with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),
Agricultural Research Service, in the Root Disease
and Biological Control Research Unit at Pullman,
Washington, and a visiting plant pathologist in the Plant
Pathology Department at Washington State University
before joining the faculty at The University of Tennessee.
Dr. Ownley’s research and teaching programs are
focused on the etiology, biology, ecology, and environmentally sustainable control of plant pathogens on a
variety of food, fiber, and biofuels crops. Her work in
biological control of plant diseases is recognized internationally. She has published more than 120 research
papers, book chapters, conference proceedings, and popular press articles and has received numerous grants from
the USDA, state agencies, private industry, and commodity groups to support her research, teaching, and outreach
projects.
Dr. Ownley is the Director of Graduate Studies for
the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. She
is a dedicated teacher and strong proponent of experiential and service learning. Her teaching portfolio includes
graduate courses on mycology, phytobacteriology, and
soilborne plant pathogens. She has mentored and trained
19 graduate students and served on the research committees of more than 40 additional students. Her teaching
has extended beyond the university to include multiple
biotechnology workshops for middle and high school
teachers across the State of Tennessee and experiential
learning summer programs for middle and high school
students.
Dr. Ownley has been recognized with numerous
awards and honors for her research, teaching, and academic outreach programs, as well as service to the university and community. She has served in leadership
roles for the American Phytopathological Society and
as Senior Editor for Phytopathology. She is currently
President of the Faculty Senate of The University of
Tennessee, Knoxville. Her service to the university has
been wide-ranging, including multiple administrative

and faculty search committees, program initiatives, policy development, unit reviews, and strategic planning. Dr.
Ownley has worked to improve the workplace and learning environment for faculty, students, and staff through
her service to the university, from the department to the
system level. Having often been the only woman at the
table in the early part of her career, she is committed to
eliminating bias and discrimination and educating others
that inclusion of underrepresented minorities and women
will multiply the possibilities and improve the innovation, creativity, civility, and sense of community of the
organization.
Dr. Robert N. Trigiano received his B.S. degree with an
emphasis in biology and chemistry from Juniata College,
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, in 1975 and an M.S. in biology (mycology) from the Pennsylvania State University,
State College, Pennsylvania, in 1977. He was an associate research agronomist working with mushroom culture and plant pathology for Green Giant Co., Le Sueur,
Minnesota, until 1979 and then a mushroom grower for
Rol-Land Farms, Ltd., Blenheim, Ontario, Canada, during 1979 and 1980. He completed a PhD degree in botany
and plant pathology (comajors) at North Carolina State
University at Raleigh in 1983. After concluding postdoctoral work in the Plant and Soil Science Department at
The University of Tennessee in Knoxville, he was
appointed an assistant professor in the Department of
Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Design at the
same university in 1987, promoted to associate professor
in 1991 and to professor in 1997. He served as interim
head of the department from 1999 to 2001. He then joined
the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at the
University of Tennessee in 2002 and was interim head
from 2012 to 2013. In 2015, Dr. Trigiano was selected
as an Institute Professor at The University of Tennessee
Institute of Agriculture.
Dr. Trigiano is a member of the American
Phytopathological Society (APS), the American Society
for Horticultural Science (ASHS), and the honorary societies of Gamma Sigma Delta, Sigma Xi, and Phi Kappa
Phi. He received the T.J. Whatley Distinguished Young
Scientist Award (The University of Tennessee, Institute
of Agriculture) and the Gamma Sigma Delta Research
individual and team Award of Merit at the University of
Tennessee. He is the recipient of the publication awards for
the most outstanding educational and ornamental papers in
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xiv

ASHS and in the Southern region ASHS L. M. Ware distinguished research award. In 2006, he was elected a fellow of
the American Society for Horticultural Science. Dr. Trigano
was awarded the B. Otto and Kathleen Wheeley Award of
Excellence in Technology Transfer and founder and manager of Creative Agricultural Technologies, LLC by the
University of Tennessee Research Foundation in 2007. He
has been an editor for Plant Disease, ASHS journals, Plant
Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Plant Cell Reports and is
currently the editor-in-chief of Critical Reviews in Plant
Sciences. Additionally, he has coedited ten books, including
Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises,
Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, and
Plant Development and Biotechnology.

Editors

Dr. Trigiano has received research grants from the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and
Forest Service, Horticultural Research Institute, and
from private industries and foundations. He has published
more than 200 research papers, book chapters, patents,
and popular press articles. He teaches graduate courses in
scientific writing and molecular techniques and has presented numerous workshops on English scientific writing
in Germany, the People’s Republic of China, and Brazil.
His current research interests include molecular markers for breeding ornamental plants, population studies
of pathogens and native plants, diseases of ornamental
plants, somatic embryogenesis, and micropropagation of
ornamental species.

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