Stereotype Threat Theory Process and Application

by Michael Inzlicht, Toni Schmader

Stereotype Threat Theory Process and Application The 21st century has brought with it unparalleled levels of diversity in the classroom and the workforce It is now common to see in elementary school high school and university classrooms not to mention boardrooms and factory floors a mixture of ethnicities races genders and religious affiliations But these changes in academic and economic opportunities have not directly translated into an elimination of group disparities in academic performance career opportunities and levels of adva

Publisher : Oxford University Press

Author : Michael Inzlicht, Toni Schmader

ISBN : 9780199732449

Year : 2011

Language: en

File Size : 1.65 MB

Category : Used Textbooks

■ Stereotype Threat

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Stereotype Threat
Theory, Process, and Application

Michael Inzlicht
AN D

Toni Schmader

1

1
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______________________________________
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Stereotype threat: theory, process, and application/[edited by] Michael Inzlicht, Toni Schmader.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-19-973244-9 (hbk) 1. Stereotypes (Social psychology) 2. Group identity.
3. Discrimination. I. Inzlicht, Michael, 1972- II. Schmader, Toni, 1972HM1096.S7398 2011
303.3’85—dc22
2011004094
______________________________________

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper

■ For Naomi, Jonah, and Jaffa, whose group hugs and
kisses have sustained me.
—MI
■ For Matt and Hazen and all the love, patience, and
laughter they provide.
—TS

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AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S

There are a number of organizations and people who deserve special thanks in helping us make this book a reality. We would like to thank the universities for whom we
have worked while editing this book: the Universities of Toronto, Arizona, and
British Columbia. We would also like to thank the many granting agencies who have
supported us over the years: the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund,
the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the National Academy of Education, the
National Institute of Mental Health, the National Science Foundation, the Ontario
Ministry of Research and Innovation, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research
Council, and the Spencer Foundation. Next, and perhaps more importantly, we
would like to acknowledge the people who have helped make this happen. We would
like to thank Lori Handelman for wooing us with her charm and convincing us to
sign with Oxford University Press. Also at Oxford, we are indebted to Abby Gross
and Joanna Ng for shepherding the project to its completion. We are indebted to our
graduate students and post-docs who have been patient when we haven’t responded
as quickly as we would have liked and who have made us look better than we deserve.
Thank you: Alyssa Croft, Chad Forbes, Jennifer Gutsell, Will Hall, Jacob Hirsh, Mike
Johns, Sonia Kang, Lisa Legault, Marchelle Scarnier, Shona Tritt, Alexa Tullett, Shen
Zhang, and Jessica Whitehead. We are also thankful for all our wonderful undergraduate students, who are too many to mention by name, although a few do stand
out for special thanks: Jeff Wong, Timour Al-Khindi, and Winnifred Ip. Finally, we
would like to thank all the contributors to this volume. It is their fascinating words
that you will be reading, and it is they, not us, who deserve the lion’s share of praise.

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CONTENTS

Contributors
1

Introduction
m ich ae l in z l i ch t a n d ton i s ch m a d e r
(the editor s)

PA R T O N E

2



3

An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat
ton i s ch m a d e r a n d s i a n b e i l o ck

4

Embodied Stereotype Threat: Exploring Brain and Body
Mechanisms Underlying Performance Impairments
w e n dy be r ry m e n d e s a n d j e r e m y ja m i e s o n

5

6

7

8



3

Basic Processes

The Role of Situational Cues in Signaling and
Maintaining Stereotype Threat
m a ry c. mur p h y a n d va l e r i e j o n e s tay l o r

PA R T T WO

xiii

17

34

51

Theoretical Extensions

Types of Threats: From Stereotype Threat to
Stereotype Threats
je n e ssa r . sh a p i r o

71

Social Belonging and the Motivation and Intellectual
Achievement of Negatively Stereotyped Students
g r e g o ry m . wa lto n a n d p r i ya n ka b. ca r r

89

Stereotype Threat Spillover: The Short- and Long-term
Effects of Coping with Threats to Social Identity
m i ch a e l i n z l i ch t, a l e x a m . t ul l e t t, a n d
jennifer n. gu tsell
Differentiating Theories: A Comparison of Stereotype Threat
and Stereotype Priming Effects
david m. marx

107

124

ix

x

Contents



9

Stereotype Boost: Positive Outcomes from the Activation
of Positive Stereotypes
margaret j. shih, todd l . pittinsky, and
geoffrey c. ho

PA R T T H R E E

10

11

12

13



141

Manifestations of Stereotype Threat

Threatening Gender and Race: Different Manifestations
of Stereotype Threat
chr ist in e l o ge l , j e n n i f e r p e ach , a n d
steven j. spencer

159

Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination
of Its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions
l aur a j. k r ay a n d a i wa s h i r a ko

173

Social Class and Test Performance: From Stereotype Threat
to Symbolic Violence and Vice Versa
je an- cl aude croizet and mathia s millet

188

Aging and Stereotype Threat: Development, Process,
and Interventions
alison l . ch a steen, sonia k . ka ng, and
j e s s i ca d. r e m e d i o s

202

14

The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Performance in Sports
j e f f sto n e , a i na ch a l a b a e v, a n d
c. k e i t h h a r r i s o n

217

15

Stereotype Threat in Interracial Interactions
jennifer a . riche son and j. nicole shelton

231

PA R T F O U R

16

17



Stereotype Threat and the Real World

Concerns About Generalizing Stereotype Threat Research
Findings to Operational High-stakes Testing
paul r . s acke t t a n d a n n m a r i e rya n
Stereotype Threat in the Real World
joshua aronson and thoma s dee

249

264

Contents



xi

18

An Identity Threat Perspective on Intervention
geoffrey l . cohen, va lerie purdie-vaughns,
and julio garcia

280

19

Conclusion: Extending and Applying Stereotype Threat
Research: A Brief Essay
cl aude m. steele

297

Index

305

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CONTRIBUTORS

Joshua Aronson
Department of Applied Psychology
Steinhardt School of Culture,
Education, and Human Development
New York University
New York, NY

Thomas Dee
Batten School of Leadership and
Public Policy
Department of Economics
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA

Sian Beilock
Department of Psychology
University of Chicago
Chicago, IL

Julio Garcia
Department of Psychology and
Neuroscience
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO

Priyanka B. Carr
Department of Psychology
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA
Aina Chalabaev
Department of Psychology
University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis
Nice, France
Alison L. Chasteen
Department of Psychology
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada

Jennifer N. Gutsell
Department of Psychology
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada
C. Keith Harrison
College of Business Administration
University of Central Florida
Orlando, FL
Geoffrey C. Ho
Anderson School of Management
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA

Geoffrey L. Cohen
School of Education
Department of Psychology
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA

Michael Inzlicht
Department of Psychology
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada

Jean-Claude Croizet
Department of Psychology
University of Poitiers
Poitiers, France

Jeremy Jamieson
Department of Psychology
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA

xiii

xiv



Contributors

Sonia K. Kang
Rotman School of Management
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada

Todd L. Pittinsky
Department of Technology & Society
Stony Brook University
Stony Brook, NY

Laura J. Kray
Haas School of Business
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA

Valerie Purdie-Vaughns
Department of Psychology
Institute for Research on African
American Studies
Columbia University
New York, NY

Christine Logel
Department of Social Development
Studies
Renison University College, University
of Waterloo
Waterloo, ON, Canada
David M. Marx
Department of Psychology
San Diego State University
San Diego, CA

Jessica D. Remedios
Department of Psychology
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON, Canada
Jennifer A. Richeson
Department of Psychology
Institute for Policy Research
Northwestern University
Evanston, IL

Wendy Berry Mendes
Department of Psychiatry
University of California,
San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Ann Marie Ryan
Department of Psychology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI

Mathias Millet
Department of Sociology
University of Poitiers
Poitiers, France

Paul R. Sackett
Department of Psychology
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN

Mary C. Murphy
Department of Psychology
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, IL

Toni Schmader
Department of Psychology
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, BC

Jennifer Peach
Department of Psychology
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, ON, Canada

Jenessa R. Shapiro
Department of Psychology
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA

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