Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology For Nursing and Healthcare Students

by Ian Peate, Muralitharan Nair

Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology For Nursing and Healthcare Students Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing and Healthcare Students is a succinct but complete overview of the structure and function of the human body with clinical applications throughout Designed specifically for nursing and healthcare students the new edition of this best selling textbook provides a user friendly straightforward jargon free introduction to the subject Key features Clinical considerations and scenarios throughout showing how the material can be applied to daily

Publisher : Wiley Blackwell

Author : Ian Peate, Muralitharan Nair

ISBN : 9781119055525

Year : 2016

Language: en

File Size : 71.47 MB

Category : Used Textbooks

Fundamentals of

Anatomy and
Physiology
For Nursing and Healthcare Students

This title is also available as an e‐book. For more details, please see
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Fundamentals of

Anatomy and
Physiology
For Nursing and Healthcare Students
Second Edition
Edited by
Ian Peate EN(G), RGN, DipN (Lond) RNT, BEd (Hons), MA (Lond) LLM
Muralitharan Nair SRN, RMN, DipN (Lond) RNT, Cert Ed, BSc (Hons) MSc
(Surrey), Cert in Counselling, FHEA

This edition first published 2017 © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
First edition published 2011 © 2011 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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1 2017

Short contents
Contributors
Acknowledgements
Preface
Prefixes, suffixes
How to use your textbook
About the companion website
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17

Basic scientific principles of physiology (Peter S Vickers)
Cells, cellular compartments, transport systems, fluid movement
between compartments (Muralitharan Nair)
Genetics (Peter S Vickers)
Tissue (Anthony Wheeldon)
The skeletal system (Ian Peate)
The muscular system (Janet G Migliozzi)
Circulatory system (Muralitharan Nair)
The cardiac system (Carl Clare)
The digestive system (Louise McErlean)
The renal system (Muralitharan Nair)
The respiratory system (Anthony Wheeldon)
The reproductive systems (Ian Peate)
The nervous system (Louise McErlean and Janet G Migliozzi)
The senses (Carl Clare)
The endocrine system (Carl Clare)
The immune system (Peter S Vickers)
The skin (Ian Peate)

Normal values
Answers
Index

xx
xxii
xxiii
xxvii
xli
xlii
1
29
61
95
121
153
185
223
257
299
333
371
403
439
479
513
551
575
579
603

Contents
Contributors
Acknowledgements
Preface
Prefixes, suffixes
How to use your textbook
About the companion website
Chapter 1 Basic scientific principles of physiology
Peter S Vickers

xx
xxii
xxiii
xxvii
xli
xlii
1

Introduction 2
Levels of organisation
2
Characteristics of life
2
Bodily requirements
4
Atoms 4
Atomic number
5
Carbon atom
5
Molecules 6
Chemical bonds
6
Ionic bonding of atoms
7
Ions 7
Covalent bonds
8
Polar bonds
10
Electrolytes 10
Elements 11
Properties of elements
12
Compounds 12
Chemical equations/chemical reactions
13
Acids and bases (pH)
15
Blood and pH values
17
Homeostasis 17
Organic and inorganic substances
18
Examples of organic substances
18
Examples of inorganic substances
19
Units of measurement
19
Conclusion 22
Glossary 22
References 24
Activities 24



Contents

Chapter 2 Cells, cellular compartments, transport systems,
fluid movement between compartments 29
Muralitharan Nair

Introduction 30
Cell membrane
32
Functions of the cell membrane
33
Cellular fluid compartments
34
Intracellular fluid
35
Extracellular fluid
36
Fluid movement between compartments
37
Composition of body fluid
38
Effects of water deficiency
38
Variation in body fluid content
39
Transport systems
40
Simple diffusion
40
Facilitated diffusion
41
Osmosis 42
Filtration 43
Active transport system
43
Electrolytes 46
Functions of electrolytes
47
Hormones that regulate fluid and electrolytes
50
Antidiuretic hormone
50
Aldosterone 51
Atrial natriuretic peptide
52
Parathyroid hormone
52
Conclusion 52
Glossary 53
References 54
Further reading
54
Activities 54

Chapter 3 Genetics 61
Peter S Vickers

Anatomical map
62
Introduction 62
The double helix
63
Nucleotides 63
Bases 64
Chromosomes 65
From DNA to proteins
67
Protein synthesis
67
Key steps in protein synthesis
69
Summary of protein synthesis
72
The transference of genes
74
Mitosis 74
Meiosis 76
First meiotic division
78

ix

Contents

x

Mendelian genetics
79
Dominant genes and recessive genes
81
Autosomal dominant inheritance and ill health
81
Autosomal recessive inheritance and ill health
81
Morbidity and mortality of dominant versus recessive disorders
84
X‐linked recessive disorders
85
Spontaneous mutation
86
Conclusion 86
Glossary 87
References 89
Further reading
89
Activities 90

Chapter 4 Tissue 95
Anthony Wheeldon

Introduction 96
Epithelial tissue
96
Simple epithelium
97
Stratified epithelium
100
Glandular epithelia
102
Connective tissue
102
Connective tissue proper
105
Cartilage 106
Bone 107
Liquid connective tissue
107
Membranes 107
Cutaneous membranes
107
Mucous membranes
108
Serous membranes
109
Synovial membranes
109
Muscle tissue
110
Nervous tissue
112
Tissue repair
112
Conclusion 113
Glossary 113
References 115
Activities 115

Chapter 5 The skeletal system 121
Ian Peate

Body map
122
Introduction 122
The axial and appendicular skeleton
122
The axial skeleton
123
The appendicular skeleton
123
Bone and its functions
123
Support 123
Movement 126



Contents
Storage 126
Protection 127
Production 127
Bone formation and growth (ossification)
128
Embryonic formation
128
Intramembranous ossification
129
Endochondral ossification
130
Bone length and thickness
130
Bone remodelling
130
Bone fractures
132
Bone structure and blood supply (histology)
134
Blood supply
135
Organisation of bone based on shape
135
Long bones
136
Short bones
136
Flat bones
139
Irregular bones
139
Sesamoid bones
139
Joints 140
Fibrous joints
140
Cartilaginous joints
141
Synovial joints
141
Conclusion 144
Glossary 144
References 146
Further reading
146
Activities 147

Chapter 6 The muscular system 153
Janet G Migliozzi

Body map
154
Introduction 154
Types of muscle tissue
154
Smooth or visceral muscle
154
Cardiac 155
Skeletal 155
Functions of the muscular system
155
Maintenance of body posture
155
Production of movement
155
Stabilisation of joints
155
Protection and control of internal tissue structures/organs
155
Generation of heat
156
Composition of skeletal muscle tissue
156
Gross anatomy of skeletal muscles
156
Microanatomy of skeletal muscle fibre
157
The sarcolemma and transverse tubules
157
The sarcoplasm
157
The myofibrils
159
The sarcomeres
159

xi

Contents

xii

Types of muscle fibres
159
Blood supply
160
Skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation
160
Energy sources for muscle contraction
163
Aerobic respiration
163
Oxygen debt
164
Muscle fatigue
165
Organisation of the skeletal muscular system
165
Skeletal muscle movement
168
The effects of ageing
177
Conclusion 178
Glossary 178
References 178
Further reading
179
Activities 179

Chapter 7 Circulatory system 185
Muralitharan Nair

Body map
186
Introduction 186
Components of blood
186
Properties of blood
188
Plasma 188
Water in plasma
188
Functions of blood
188
Formation of blood cells
190
Red blood cells
190
Haemoglobin 192
Formation of red blood cells
192
Life cycle of the red blood cell
194
Transport of respiratory gases
195
White blood cells
196
Neutrophils 196
Eosinophils 197
Basophils 197
Monocytes 198
Lymphocytes 198
Platelets 199
Haemostasis 199
Vasoconstriction 199
Platelet aggregation
199
Coagulation 199
Blood groups
202
Blood vessels
203
Structure and function of arteries and veins
204
Capillaries 207
Blood pressure
207
Physiological factors regulating blood pressure
208
Control of arterial blood pressure
208



Contents
Lymphatic system
208
Lymph 208
Lymph capillaries and large lymph vessels
210
Lymph nodes
210
Lymphatic organs
213
Spleen 213
The thymus gland
214
Functions of the lymphatic system
214
Conclusion 214
Glossary 215
References 216
Further reading
216
Activities 217

Chapter 8 The cardiac system 223
Carl Clare

Body map
224
Introduction 224
Size and location of the heart
224
The structures of the heart
225
Heart wall
225
The heart chambers
227
The blood supply to the heart
230
Blood flow through the heart
233
The electrical pathways of the heart
234
The cardiac cycle
239
Factors affecting cardiac output
243
Regulation of stroke volume
243
Preload 243
Force of contraction
244
Afterload 244
Regulation of heart rate
244
Autonomic nervous system activity
245
Baroreceptors and the cardiovascular centre
245
Hormone activity
245
Conclusion 247
Glossary 247
References 250
Further reading
250
Activities 251

Chapter 9 The digestive system 257
Louise McErlean

Body map
258
Introduction 258
The activity of the digestive system
258
The organisation of the digestive system
259
The digestive system organs
259

xiii

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